Sports Injuries & Medicine

Relationship between Anthropometric Characteristics and VO2 Max among Young Male Taekwondo Players Residing in BKSP, Dhaka

Bahauddin Bayzid1, Rejwan Gani Mazumder1, Mohammad Kamrujjaman2*, SM Mustofa Kamal1, Abu Reza MD Shariful Hasan3, Md. Soriful Islam1

1Department of Physiotherapy, SAIC College of Medical Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Department of Physiotherapy, State College of Health Sciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Contractual Sports Physiotherapist, Bangladesh Cricket Board (BCB)

*Corresponding author: Mohammad Kamrujjaman, Department of Physiotherapy, State College of Health Sciences, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh

Received Date: 15 November, 2019; Accepted Date: 30 November, 2019; Published Date: 06 December, 2019

Citation: Bayzid B, Mazumder RG, Kamrujjaman M, Mustofa Kamal SM, MD Shariful Hasan AR, et al. (2019) Relationship between Anthropometric Characteristics and VO2 Max among Young Male Taekwondo Players Residing in BKSP, Dhaka. Sports Injr Med: 3: 159. DOI: 10.29011/2576-9596.100059


Purpose: The purpose of this study to investigate the relationship between anthropometric characteristics and VO2 Max in young male Taekwondo players.

Methods: A descriptive ex post facto design was conducted in Bangladesh Kria Shikkha Protishtan (BKSP). Age range between 15-20 years among 13 male taekwondo players took part in this study. A valid cooper test and four skin fold method was used to measure the VO2 Max and body fat percentage. The statistical analysis was done by Pearson correlation test.

Results: The mean body fat percentage among the participants was 22.80±4.583 and the mean VO2 Max was 2792.31±221.591. However, there was a negative correlation found between VO2 Max and body fat percentage (r=-0.463) and showed as not significant (p=0.111>0.05). More than two third of the participants was reported very good VO2 Max whereas a significant correlation was found between VO2 Max with age (r=.563, p=.0453<0.05) and BMI (r=-.643, p= 0.018<0.05)

Conclusion: It is concluded that VO2 Max is influenced by age, body mass index, and body fat percentage in taekwondo players. Every taekwondo players as well as others athletes should have needed to increase the capacity of VO2 Max for achieving a good performance.


Anthropometric Characteristics, Body Mass Index, Body Fat Percentage, VO2 Max


BF%: Body Fat Percentage; BMI: Body Mass Index; BKSP: Bangladesh Krira Shikkha Protishtan; FFM: Fat Free Mass; VO2 Max: Maximum Volume of Oxygen


Aerobic capacity of athletes is the key factor of success in sports achievements. Anthropometric characteristics such as age, Body Mass Index (BMI), and Body Fat Percentage (BF%) affect VO2 max as well as the cardiovascular status of the athletes [1]. VO2 Max is the highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during maximal exercise [2]. Body composition and maximal oxygen consumption are essential indicators of good physical fitness in players [3,4]. Good physical fitness increases performance and reduces the sports injury [5]. The capacity of VO2 Max of an individual also represents the performance in the field of different sports [1]. Most of the studies report that well-developed muscle component (mass) and a low percentage of subcutaneous adipose tissue are predictors of better sports performance [6,7]. The fat of the human body regulates physiological and medical importance. The body fat includes the entire content of chemical fat or lipids in the body, and the Fat-Free Mass (FFM), which includes all the rest of the body apart from fat [8]. There is a close relation remain between the anthropometric characteristics and aerobic, cardiovascular fitness. To decrease body fat, there is an increase in aerobic fitness [1]. Regular exercise brings to improve body composition and cardiovascular fitness. This research is going to examine the relationship between the anthropometric characteristics and VO2 Max among taekwondo sports persons of BKSP. However, there is still no report regarding maximal oxygen consumption and its correlation with body components in Taekwondo players in our country. Among many factors like physical fitness and endurance of the players are the most important ones. The aim of this study was to quantify the BF% and VO2 Max in young male Taekwondo players and to investigate the correlation between Anthropometric characteristics and maximal aerobic consumption.


Tae Kwon Do (also known as Taekwondo) is originated in Korea. It is known as an art of self-defense and one of the ancient forms of art in the world reaching back over 2000 years. Taekwondo means Tae (foot), Kwon (hand), Do (art). One of the earliest clues of the Tae Kwon Do is a mural painted on the wall of a tomb constructed between 37 BC and 66 AD in the Korean Kingdom of Koguryo [9].

Defining VO2 Max

VO2 Max is the greatest amount of oxygen that a person can receive and spend during one minute of exercise The VO2 Max value is a direct pointer of the skill to provide the force for muscle contractions during the process of anaerobic exercise. Therefore, it is considered that maximum oxygen consumption is a major measure that indicates the functional capacity of the cardio respiratory system [10].

Materials and Methods

Study Design and Participants

The present study is descriptive and ex post facto design. Thirteen subjects were selected from male Taekwondo players of BKSP. Age range 15-20 years of the participants who had a minimum six months of experience residing in BKSP took part in this study. After securing institutional ethical approval, the subjects were informed about list procedures and then were asked to provide written consent.

Measurement of VO2 Max by Cooper Test

To find VO2 Max uses the calculation below: (Distance covered in metres - 504.9) ÷ 44.73. This test is designed to be calculated on a track with clearly marked distance. Perform a short warm-up about 10 to 15 minutes of low to moderately strenuous activity before performing a fitness test. When you are warmed up, get going. Run or walk as far as you can 12 minutes. Record the total number of miles or kilometers you traveled in 12 minutes [11] (Table 1).

Measurement of BF %

BF% is measured by sum of four skin folds like Biceps skin fold (Front side middle upper arm), Triceps skin fold (Back side middle upperarm), Subscapilar skin fold (Under the lowest point of the shoulder blade), Suprailiac skin fold (Above the upper bone of the hip). The skin fold estimation methods are based on a skin fold test, also known as a pinch test, whereby calipers accurately measured a pinch of skin at several uniform points on the body to assess the thickness of the subcutaneous fat surface. The equipment used for measuring selected skin fold by Harpendon skin fold calipers to the nearest 0.1 mm at a standard pressure of 10 [12].

Statistical Analysis

Descriptive statistics (mean ± standard deviation) were calculated for directly measured and extracted. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between the variables. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. P<0.05 was considered statistically significance.


Table 2 reveals that the mean age of the participants was 16.69±1.316 in age range 15-20 years. According to BMI, the mean BMI was measured by 20.38±2.673 that represents the normal body weight. By four skin fold method in the measurement of BF%, the mean BF% was 22.80±4.583. Regarding VO2 Max, most of the participants were identified as excellent VO2 Max (84.6%) followed by above average (7.7%) and average (77%) respectively as shown in Figure 1. Table 3 represents correlation test between VO2 Max with age, BMI, and BF%. There is a significant positive correlation was found between VO2 Max and age (r=0.563, p=0.0453) as well as significant negative correlation was found between BMI and VO2 max (r=-0.643, p=0.018). There was a negative correlation found between BF% and VO2 Max (r=-.463) and showed as non-significant (p=0.111>.05).


It is well established that performance in combat sports is dependent on several factors, such as anthropometric characteristics, physiological profile and nutritional requirement [13]. The principal findings of this study were very good percentages of VO2 max present in maximum Taekwondo players. The current study found, the mean BF% was 22.80±4.583 among taekwondo players. A study by Shete, et al. (2014) [1] found 24.11±1.83 BF% among athletes. Comparing correlation between anthropometric characteristics and VO2 Max, positive correlation was found between VO2 Max and age indicated that increasing age tends to increase VO2 Max and it was significant. But in contrast, Ohta, et al. (1999) [14] reported that maximal O2 uptake was significantly decreased with age. Negative correlation between BMI and VO2 Max was found in this study that indicated as BMI increases the VO2 Max decreases. The Current study found a negative correlation between VO2 max with BF%. As BF% increases as a result of decreases VO2 max and showed as non-significant. Amani, et al. (2010) [15] stated that there was a strong relationship between the body fat percent and maximum O2 uptakes and also indicated that increasing in body fat percent can cause reducing VO2 max. Previous study [16] stated that maximal O2 uptake was significantly and negatively correlated with body fat percentage.


Some anthropometric factors are directly influencing the athlete’s VO2 Max. Excellent VO2 Max shows among Taekwondo players which were concluded in this study. However, there is significant positive and negative correlation found between VO2 Max with anthropometric characteristics such as age and BMI, which Indicated as increase VO2 Max by increasing chronological age and a decrease VO2 Max with increasing BMI. Conversely, there was a negative correlation between BF% and VO2 Max and found as a non-significant. Sports trainers, nutritionist, physiotherapist, and coaches are the concern professionals who might help the players and athletes to increase their VO2 Max.


The authors would like to express their gratitude to Bangladesh Krira Shikka Protishthan (BKSP), Savar, Dhaka. The authors also thankful to all the participants who ready performed the various tests.

Conflict of Interest

We, the authors of the article declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding this article.

Figure 1: VO2 Max of the participants based on Cooper test.



Very Good




Very Bad


















































Table 1: VO2 Max at Different ages (According to Cooper test).






BMI (kg.m-2)




Table 2: Anthropometric Characteristics. Data expressed in mean and (±) Standard deviation (n=13).



p- value

VO2 Max- Age



VO2 Max- BMI



VO2 Max- BF%



Table 3: Correlation between Anthropometric characteristics and VO2 Max.

Mark (*) value is representing as statistical significant (p<0.05).


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