Current Research in Complementary & Alternative Medicine (ISSN: 2577-2201)

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A Comprehensive Review on Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Future Prospective of Dietary Medicinal Plant Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira

Shui-Tein Chen*, Yerra Koteswara Rao*

ALPS Biotech Co., Ltd., National Biotechnology Research Park, Nangang, Taipei-11571, Taiwan

*Corresponding authors: Shui-Tein Chen and Yerra Koteswara Rao, ALPS Biotech Co., Ltd., National Biotechnology Research Park, Nangang, Taipei-11571, Taiwan.

Received Date: 25 August 2022

Accepted Date: 2 September 2022

Published Date: 8 September 2022

Citation: Chen S-T, Rao YK (2022) A Comprehensive Review on Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Future Prospective of Dietary Medicinal plant Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira. Curr Res Cmpl Alt Med 6: 160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29011/2577-2201.100060

Abstract

Background : The plants belonging to the genus Cinnamomum traditionally used as an ethnomedicine in Asia, Europe, and North America. Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, is an endemic and economic medicinal plant of Taiwan. It is traditionally used as an antibacterial, antifungal, anti-termite, antidiabetic, anti-hyperuricemia, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant agent. Despite these attributes, C. osmophloeum is not enough explored scientifically. This review updated the essential oils and other secondary metabolites, and the pharmacological activities of C. osmophloeum, as well as its other economic benefits. Methods: The information in the review is extracted from the major scientific databases, such as PubMed, BioMed Central, Google scholar, Elsevier, ACS publications, MDPI, Taylor and Francis, Wiley Online Library, Scopus, Springer, and Web of Science, using journals, dissertations, books and/or chapters, and conference proceedings. Results: Various secondary metabolites including essential oil components, flavonoids, lignans, and benzenoids are reported from the extracts of C. osmophloeum. The review established a wide range of pharmacological properties including, antibacterial, antidiabetic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitermitic, anti-tyrosinase, anti-xanthine oxidase, anxiolytic, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, and mosquito larvicidal properties of extracts, as well as essential oils and other secondary metabolites of C. osmophloeum. Conclusions: The present review provides a scientific basis for future studies and necessary information for the development of C. osmophloeum based therapeutic agents.

Keywords : Cinnamomum osmophloeum; Current Research; Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Essential oils; Non-essential oil metabolites; Biological activities; Analyses

Introduction

The genus Cinnamomum belongs to the plant family of Lauraceae. It comprises about 250 species, which are distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia, Australia, Pacific islands [1]. The inner bark of the Cinnamomum trees is known as cinnamon [1]. Commercial cinnamons are obtained from various Cinnamomum species, such as Ceylon cinnamon and Cassia cinnamon. The Ceylon cinnamon usually refers to the dried bark of C. verum Berchthold and Presl. (synC. zeylanicum), and it is indigenous to Sri Lanka and southern India [1]. Cassia cinnamons are differ from Ceylon cinnamon, which are usually known as Chinese cassia (C. cassia (L.) Berchthold and Presl.), Saigon cassia (C. loureiroi Nees, Vietnamese cinnamon), and Indonesian cassia (C. burmannii) [1]. The species of Cinnamomum are cultivated as landscape plants and sidewalk trees, and used in traditional medicine, timber, as well as edible fruits. Importantly, cinnamon is commonly used as a spice in food to give aroma taste and flavor, and to act as a preservative [1]. Other folk uses of cinnamon include applying its essential oil as a fragrance in cosmetics, perfumes, and cigarettes [1].

Although people used cinnamon for quite a long time, however, the hepatotoxic compound, coumarin is found in cinnamon in various amounts [2]. Coumarin is a natural flavoring molecule used as an ingredient in foods, alcoholic beverages, tobaccos, toothpastes, and detergents. In this connection, it is interesting to note that the coumarin contents of Cassia cinnamons are generally higher (~40‒12180 mg/kg), than that of Ceylon cinnamon (~0−486 mg/kg) [3,4]. However, the use of coumarin as a food flavoring agent is prohibited in the 1950s due to its hepatotoxicity. In this connection, it is necessary to found the alternative source for the safer cinnamons with low coumarin content, which can be beneficial to the global spice market.

Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira is a native tree species in Taiwan, commonly known as pseudo cinnamomum or indigenous cinnamon [5]. Eight of 14Cinnamomum species in Taiwan are endemic, including C. osmophloeum [5]. It is a small evergreen tree that grows in the mountainous area of Po-Li, Taiwan [6]. The plant C. osmophloeum grows to 12 m in height and about 40 cm in diameter, and normally inhabits in Taiwan’s natural hardwood forests at elevations between 400 and 1500 m [6]. The leaves of C. osmophloeum are traditionally used in Taiwanese folk medicines as an antibacterial, antifungal, antitermite, antidiabetic, antihyperuricemia, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant agent [5]. Additionally, C. osmophloeum leaves are used in food, flavoring agent, spices, beverages, medical products, and perfumes. The leaves of C. osmophloeum has nine chemotypes with various secondary metabolite profiles, which are discussed later of this review. It is interesting to note that the leaf essential oil of C. osmophloeum is similar to those of commercial C. cassia bark essential oil [2]. However, the Cassia cinnamon bark samples contain higher level of coumarin, whereas the C. osmophloeum leaf samples comparatively contains the lower levels of coumarin [2]. Taste-wise, C. osmophloeum leaves are milder than ceylon cinnamon, and less heavy on the spicy notes with wafts of vanilla. The plant C. osmophloeum is cultivated in the large areas in Taiwan. A recent review reported that the potential use of C. osmophloeum in the alleviation of oral mucositis [7]. However, the chemical structures of the compounds and their complete pharmacological activities are not fully displayed. Therefore, the present review reported the phytochemical constituents and their potential pharmacological activities, analyses methods, as well as other economic benefits of C. osmophloeum.

Literature Methodology

Relevant information about C. osmophloeum is obtained from ancient books, records, doctoral and

master's theses, and scientific search engines including, PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and so on. The literature search is carried out to gather all relevant information about the traditional uses, phytochemicals and pharmacological activities, and underlying mechanism of action, toxicological and safety considerations of C. osmophloeum. All chemical structures were drawn using ChemDraw 17.0 software.

Specific Identification of C. osmophloeum

Many Cinnamomum plants are morphologically similar [1]. The hepatotoxic adulterant Cinnamomum

species, such as C. burmannii, C. loureiroi, andC. cassia, are easily confused with that of non-hepatotoxicC. osmophloeum. Therefore, specific differentiation of C. osmophloeum is critical to avoid toxic issues associated with fraudulent adulteration. In this connection, it is reported that the genetic variation and taxonomic relationship of C. osmophloeum, C. macrostemon and C. insulari [8]. The linalool synthase (LIS) genes are isolated from different provenances of C. osmophloeum [9], and the cinnamaldehyde is increased in 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase 1 and 4 (Co4CL1 and Co4CL4 ), and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CoCCR) transgenic plants [10]. Further, the Cinnamomum species, C. burmannii (Nees & T. Nees) Blume, and C. insularimontanum Hayata are morphologically similar with C. osmophloeum [11,12]. However, the leaves of C. burmannii and C. insularimontanum contains lower amount of cinnamaldehyde as compared with the leaves of C. osmophloeum [12]. Therefore, quantitative determination of cinnamaldehyde is an optional method for the identification of C. osmophloeum from C. burmannii and C. insularimontanum [12]. On the other hand, a novel method using leaf images and deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), is reported for the distinction of C. burmannii, C. insularimontanum and C. osmophloeum [12]. To continue, a novel DNA sequence comparisons of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) method is also reported for the identification of gene resources, genetic diversity, and nucleotide sequence polymorphisms for 73 geographical strains of C. osmophloeum [13]. Recently, Yang et al., developed a polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for rapid identification C. osmophloeum from adulterant Cinnamomum species by DNA polymorphism analysis [14].

Chemical Constituents of C. osmophloeum

Essential oil components

Essential oils (EOs) are colorless volatile liquids with a characteristic feature of strong odor. Hence, they are widely used in aromatherapy and cosmetics industry [15]. The EOs comprising the aromatic and volatile compounds naturally present in all parts of the plants including seeds, flowers, peel, stem, bark and whole plants [15]. EOs are freely soluble in various solvents such as alcohol, ether, and fixed oils, but insoluble in water [15]. In general, EOs display similar chemical composition and biological activities when obtained from a single plant species grown under similar climate, edaphic conditions and common harvest season. However, the quality and quantity of EOs are vary depends on plant organ, age of trees, chemotypes, growing season, methods of preparation, soil type and climatic conditions [15]. The GC and GC/MS analyses methods are widely used to identify the leaf EO components of C. osmophloeum. The chemical components of leaf EOs are different from various C. osmophloeum clones found in different regions in Taiwan [16-20]. It is interesting to note that the chemical constituents of C. osmophloeum leaf EOs are similar to those of C. cassia bark oil with cinnamaldehyde as the major component [21]. C. cassia bark oil has commercial value, and generally used in food and beverages.

Hu et al., (1985) [22], established an indigenous cinnamon clonal orchard with cuttings of trees from 13 natural populations from central, eastern and southern regions of Taiwan, and analyzed the composition of the EOs ofC. osmophloeum leaves [22]. They found that C. osmophloeum leaves from certain provenances contain cinnamaldehyde as the major constituent, whereas linalool is a major compound in some other provenances. Based on the abundances of each individual constituent, it is classified the C. osmophloeum leaf EOs into nine types: cassia type, cinnamaldehyde type, coumarin type, linalool type, eugenol type, camphor type, 4-terpineol type, linalool/terpineol type, and mixed type [22]. The GC/MS analysis of volatile oil obtained from the steam distillation of C. osmophloeum leaves, resulted in the identification of EOs components, such as α-pinene (EO14), camphene ( EO15), benzaldehyde (EO1), etc. (Figure 1, Table, 1) [22]. Fang et al., (1989) [24] reported that the quantitative analysis of EO components from the bark and leaves ofC. osmophloeum (Table 1) [24]. They identified that the component, trans-cinnamaldehyde (EO6), as a major constituents in the EO of the both the bark and leaves (~85%) [24]. Furthermore, the five years old plantation trees gives the EOs with an yield of 0.88%, and 0.16% from the leaves and bark, respectively [24]. It is reported that EOs of clones A and B are different, where A belongs to the mixed type, whereas B belongs to the cinnamaldehyde type [25,26]. Further, Cheng et al., (2004) [19] classified the C. osmophloeum leaf EOs of eight provenances into five chemotypes namely, cinnamaldehyde type, linalool type, camphor type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, and mixed type [19]. To continue, based on the abundance the leaf EOs are classified into six chemotypes namely, cinnamaldehyde type, cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type, cinnamyl acetate type, linalool type, camphor type, and mixed type [27,28]. It is identified that the EOs and key constituents from the leaves of two C. osmophloeum clones are belongs to two different chemotypes, which are classified as the cinnamaldehyde type and camphor type [29]. Cheng et al. (2012) [30], reported that the content of linalool (EO12) varied from 28.8 to 35.1 mg/g, in the EOs of C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves collected from various plants and seasons [30]. Lee et al., identified the chemotype of majorC. osmophloeum leaf EOs are linalool type (40.24%), followed bytrans-cinnamyl acetate (EO10, 11.71%), camphor (EO38, 9.38%), cinnamaldehyde ( EO6, 6.87%), etc. (Figure 1, Table 1) [31]. This chemotype, contains relatively small amount of cinnamaldehyde as compared with linalool (6.87% vs 40.24%) [31]. To continue, C. osmophloeum leaf EOs are obtained by hydrodistillation, and the GC-MS analysis indicates that the trans-cinnamaldehyde (70.20%) as a the major one, while the caryophyllene oxide (EO11, 0.08%) is the least abundant [32]. These above previous reports indicates that the leaf EOs of C. osmophloeum contains numerous volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives and, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, acids, and other miscellaneous compounds (Figure 1, Table 1). It is also observed that the major components of C. osmophloeum leaf EOs are, trans-cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, linalool and eugenol (Table 1).

On the other hand, EOs from the twigs of C. osmophloeum constituents various components including trans-cinnamaldehyde (EO6) (Table 1) [41]. The thermal stability results of C. osmophloeum leaf EOs indicated that trans -cinnamaldehyde content in eugenol-free EO is affected by high temperatures, however, the stability of EO improved by adding appropriate amounts of eugenol [33]. The identified chemical structures of the EOs from the C. osmophloeum are presented as in Figure 1, and the components names are listed in Table 1.

Figure 1: Chemical structures of essential oil components from C. osmophloeum.

NO.

Name

Ref.

NO.

Name

Ref.

 

From Leaves

 

EO116

β -Caryophyllene

[19],[24],[34]

EO1

Benzaldehyde

[19], [23‒26], [31], [32], [34‒37]

EO117

α -Caryophyllene

[19]

EO2

Benzenepropanal

[29], [32], [34], [37]

EO118

Valencene

[19]

EO3

2-methyl benzofuran

[32], [35], [36]

EO119

γ-elemene

[19], [36]

EO4

p -allylanisole, Estragole

[19], [23], [24], [29], [31], [32[, [34‒

36]

EO120

α -guaiene

[19]

EO5

cis -cinnamaldehyde

[19], [24], [26], [31], [32], [34‒37]

EO121

Labda-8(20),12,14-triene

[19]

EO6

trans -cinnamaldehyde

[19], [23‒26], [29], [31], [32], [35‒37]

EO122

Verticiol

[19], [36]

EO7

L-bornyl acetate

[29], [32], [34], [35]

EO123

Kaur-16-ene

[19]

EO8

Eugenol

[19], [23‒26], [31], [32], [34‒37]

EO124

Limonene

[23], [24]

EO9

trans -β-caryophyllene

[29], [31], [32], [36]

EO125

Furfural, 2-Furaldehyde

[24]

EO10

trans -cinnamyl acetate

[24‒26], [29], [31], [32], [34], [35],

[38]

EO126

Linalool acetate, Bergamiol

[24]

EO11

Caryophyllene oxide

[19], [24], [29], [31], [32],

[35],[36],[39]

EO127

Copacamphene

[24]

EO12

Linalool

[19], [24‒26], [31], [35], [36], [40]

EO128

Menthone

[24]

EO13

Bornyl acetate

[19], [24], [31], [36], [40]

EO129

Citronellyl acetate

[24]

EO14

α -pinene

[23], [24], [31], [35], [37]

EO130

Isoborneol, Isocamphol

[24]

EO15

Camphene

[19], [23], [24], [31], [35], [36], [37]

EO131

α-terpinyl acetate

[24]

EO16

β -pinene

[19], [23], [24], [31], [36], [37]

EO132

Piperitone, 3-

Carvomenthenone

[24]

EO17

Isobornylacetate

[37]

EO133

d -carvone, (S)-(+)-Carvone

[24]

EO18

cis -Cinnamyl acetate

[19], [26], [34], [35], [36], [37]

EO134

2,2,6-trimethyl-6vinyltetrahydropyran-3-ol

[24]

EO19

Ethenylbenzene, Styrene

[31]

EO135

γ-cadinene

[24], [36]

EO20

Tricyclene

[31]

EO136

Citronellol, or dihydrogeraniol

[24]

EO21

α -thujene

[31]

EO137

Cuminaldehyde

[24]

EO22

α-fenchene

[19], [31], [36]

EO138

Nerol

[24], [35]

EO23

Sabinene

[31], [39]

EO139

Safrole, Safrol, Shikimole

[24]

EO24

β -myrcene

[24], [31], [35]

EO140

2-hydroxy-1,8-cineol

[24]

EO25

α-phellandrene

[31]

EO141

2-Phenylethanol

[24]

EO26

3-carene

[31]

EO142

cis -jasmone

[24]

EO27

α -terpinene

[19], [24], [31]

EO143

Elemol

[24]

EO28

p -cymene

[19], [23], [24], [31], [36]

EO144

Cedrol

[24]

EO29

Salicylaldehyde

[19], [31], [35], [36]

EO145

Vanillin

[24]

EO30

1,8-cineole

[24‒26], [31], [35], [39]

EO146

Ascabiol, benzyl benzoate

[24]

EO31

Limonene

[19], [31], [35]

EO147

Coumarin

[19], [24‒26], [29],

[35], [36]

EO32

trans -α-ocimene

[31]

EO148

Geranyl formate

[35]

EO33

β -ocimene

[24], [31]

EO149

Cinnamyl formate

[35]

EO34

γ -terpinene

[31]

     

EO35

cis -linalool oxide

[19], [24], [31], [35], [39]

 

From Bark

 

EO36

trans -linalool oxide

[24], [31], [35], [39]

EO1

Benzaldehyde

[24]

EO37

Terpinolene

[24], [31]

EO4

Estragole, p-allylanisole

[24]

EO38

Camphor

[19], [29], [31], [35], [36]

EO5

cis -cinnamaldehyde

[24]

EO39

Benzylacetaldehyde

[19], [23], [31], [35], [36]

EO6

trans -cinnamaldehyde

[24]

EO40

Cinnamyl alcohol

[24], [31], [35]

EO8

Eugenol

[24]

EO41

4-terpineol

[19], [23], [24], [31], [35], [36]

EO10

trans -cinnamyl acetate

[24]

EO42

Octyl acetate

[31]

EO11

Caryophyllene oxide

[24]

EO43

cis -citral, Neral

[19], [24‒26], [31], [36], [39]

EO12

Linalool

[24]

EO44

Chavicol, or 4-allyphenol

[19], [31]

EO13

Bornyl acetate

[24]

EO45

trans -anethol

[19], [31], [36]

EO14

α -pinene

[24]

EO46

Cinnamyl alcohol

[19], [31]

EO15

Camphene

[24]

EO47

cis -cinnamic acid

[24], [31]

EO16

β -pinene

[24]

EO48

α -cubebene

[19], [31], [34], [36]

EO24

β -myrcene

[24]

EO49

Geranyl acetate

[24‒26], [31], [35], [36], [39]

EO27

α -terpinene

[24]

EO50

(+)-cyclosativene

[19], [31]

EO28

p -cymene

[24]

EO51

α-ylangene

[31]

EO30

1,8-cineole

[24]

EO52

Isoledene

[19], [31], [36]

EO33

β -ocimene

[24]

EO53

Copaene

[19], [31]

EO36

trans -linalool oxide

[24]

EO54

α -bourbonene

[31]

EO37

Terpinolene

[24]

EO55

β -cubebene

[31], [38]

EO40

Cinnamyl alcohol

[24]

EO56

β -elemene

[31]

EO41

4-terpineol

[24]

EO57

(cis,trans)-α-farnesene

[31]

EO43

cis -citral, Neral

[24]

EO58

Aromadendrene

[31], [36]

EO47

cis -cinnamic acid

[24]

EO59

α -humulene

[19], [24], [31]

EO49

Geranyl acetate

[24]

EO60

α -acoradiene

[31]

EO59

α -humulene

[24]

EO61

Alloaromadendrene

[19], [31]

EO71

γ -murrolene

[24]

EO62

α -amorphene

[31]

EO75

α -calacorene

[24]

EO63

α -curcumene

[31]

EO78

(+) spathulenol

[24]

EO64

Germacrene-d

[31], [39]

EO87

τ -cadinol

[24]

EO65

β -selinene

[31]

EO90

Methyl eugenol

[24]

EO66

α -murrolene

[19], [31]

EO101

Phytol

[24]

EO67

α -zingibirene

[31]

EO108

α-terpineol

[24]

EO68

β -patchoulene

[31]

EO111

cis -geraniol

[24]

EO69

Acetyleugenol

[31]

EO117

β -Caryophyllene

[24]

EO70

β -bisabolene

[31]

EO125

Limonene

[24]

EO71

γ -murrolene

[19], [24], [31], [39]

EO126

Furfural

[24]

EO72

1S, cis-calamenene

[31]

EO127

Linalool acetate, Bergamiol

[24]

EO73

δ -cadinene

[19], [31], [35], [36], [39]

EO128

Copacamphene

[24]

EO74

Cadina-1,4-diene

[31]

EO129

Menthone

[24]

EO75

α -calacorene

[24], [31]

EO130

Citronellyl acetate

[24]

EO76

(+)-nerolidol

[31]

EO131

Isoborneol, Isocamphol

[24]

EO77

Lauric acid

[31]

EO132

α-terpinyl acetate

[24]

EO78

(+) spathulenol

[24], [31], [35], [39]

EO133

Piperitone, 3- Carvomenthenone

[24]

EO79

(+)-ledol

[31]

EO134

d-carvone, (S)-(+)-Carvone

[24]

EO80

Guaiol

[19], [31]

EO135

2,2,6-trimethyl-6- vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-ol

[24]

EO81

Humulene oxide II

[31]

EO136

γ-cadinene

[24]

EO82

Alloaramadendrene oxide (I)

[31]

EO137

Citronellol, or dihydrogeraniol

[24]

EO83

Ledene oxide (II)

[31]

EO138

Cuminaldehyde

[24]

EO84

6-cadinol

[19], [31], [39]

EO139

Nerol

[24]

EO85

10,10-dimethyl-2,6- dimethylenebicyclo[7.2.0]undecan-5-ol

[31]

EO140

Safrole, Safrol, Shikimole

[24]

EO86

Isoaromadendrene epoxide

[31]

EO141

2-hydroxy-1,8-cineol

[24]

EO87

τ -cadinol

[24], [29], [31], [35], [36], [39]

EO142

2-Phenylethanol

[24]

EO88

O -methoxy cinnamyl acetate

[31]

EO143

cis -jasmone

[24]

EO89

α -cadinol

[19], [31], [35], [36], [39]

EO144

elemol

[24]

EO90

Methyl eugenol

[24], [31]

EO145

Cedrol

[24]

EO91

Zerumbone

[31]

EO146

Vanillin

[24]

EO92

Farnesyl acetate

[31]

EO147

Ascabiol, benzyl benzoate

[24]

EO93

6,10,14-

trimethylpentadecan-2-one

[31]

     

EO94

Farnesol

[31]

 

From twigs

 

EO95

Rimuene

[19], [31], [36]

EO4

4-allylanisole, or p-allylanisole

[41]

EO96

ent -pimara-8(14),15-diene

[31]

EO6

trans -cinnamaldehyde

[41]

EO97

Hexadecanoic acid

[31]

EO8

Eugenol

[41]

EO98

Bornyl cinnamate 1

[31]

EO10

trans -cinnamyl acetate

[41]

EO99

Manoyl oxide

[31]

EO11

Caryophyllene oxide

[41]

EO100

(−)-kaurene

[31]

EO13

Bornyl acetate

[41]

EO101

Phytol

[24], [31]

EO53

Copaene

[41]

EO102

Linolenic acid

[31]

EO63

α -curcumene

[41]

EO103

Oleic acid

[31]

EO73

δ -cadinene

[41]

EO104

Octadecanoic acid

[31]

EO75

α -calacorene

[41]

EO105

6-camphenol

39

EO76

(+)-nerolidol

[41]

EO106

Santolina triene

39

EO78

(+) spathulenol

[41]

EO107

1-butenylidene-cyclohexane

39

EO87

τ -cadinol

[41]

EO108

α-terpineol

[19],[24‒26], [29], [35], [36], [39]

EO108

α-terpineol

[41]

EO109

α-campholenal

[39]

EO115

(+)-Borneol

[41]

EO110

trans -verbenol

[39]

EO117

β -Caryophyllene

[41]

EO111

cis -geraniol

[19], [24‒26], [35], [36], [39]

EO150

Elemicin, 3,4,5 Trimethoxyallylbenzene

[41]

EO112

2,4,4-trimethylcyclohex-1enecarboxylic acid

[39]

EO151

trans -β-Elemenone

[41]

EO113

τ -cadinene

[39]

EO152

γ-Eudesmol, Selinenol,

Uncineol

[41]

EO114

Benzyl alcohol, phenylmethanol

[19]

EO153

Cadalin

[41]

EO115

(+)-Borneol

[19], [25], [26], [35]

EO154

Guaiol acetate

[41]

Table 1: The essential oil components of C. osmophloeum

Cinnamon (C. cassia) is a common spice with sweet, spicy, and special flavor. It has been widely used in bakeries, drinks, desserts, and cuisines. The main constituent of essential oil from cinnamon bark is transcinnamaldehyde (EO06). The leaf EOs of indigenous cinnamon (C. osmophloeum) contains higher amount of EO06 as compared with Cinnamon (C. cassia) [2]. In particular, the C. osmophloeum leaf EOs contains ~80% (w/w) of trans-cinnamaldehyde (EO06), and these values ranged from 769 to 809 g/kg of EOs, which correspond to about 8.9−26.1 g/kg of sample [2]. Additionally, the cinnamaldehyde content of the cinnamon bark EOs is ~325 g/kg, which is much lower than the cinnamaldehyde contents of the C. osmophloeum leaf EOs (769 to 809 g/kg). Therefore, C. osmophloeum leaves can be considered a good quality and has a potential cinnamon substitute source to replace commercial bark cinnamons [2]. Further, a recent report indicates that the relative content of transcinnamaldehyde in the leaves of C. osmophloeum ct. cinnamaldehyde has the seasonal variation, which is relatively lower (32.2%) in the month of May as compared with the rest of the months (>76.3%) [42]. On the other hand, the leaf EOs of C. osmophloeum contains comparatively lower level of coumarin (0.29−13.99 mg/kg), as compared with the EOs of Cassia cinnamon (26.8−97.4 mg/kg) [2]. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the C. osmophloeum as a safer spice substitute for C. cassia.

Other (Non-essential oil) metabolites of C. osmophloeum

Flavonoids are a class of secondary metabolites that consist of more than 7000 structures with fifteen carbon atoms. This class of compound have a wide-range of bioactive properties, including antioxidant, protective against inflammatory processes, hypertension, arthritis and AIDS, and so on. The flavonoid glycosides compounds, kaempferitrin (F1) and kaempferol-7-O-α-rhamnoside (F10) along with coumarin, fumaric acid are reported from the leaves of C. osmophloeum (Figure 2, Table 2) [43]. Chemical examination of the 80% methanolic extract from C. osmophloeum leaves, resulted in the isolation of highly sweet constituent, trans-cinnamaldehyde (in 1.03% yield, w/w) [23]. Phytochemical investigation on the n-butanol fraction of methanol extract from C. osmophloeum leaves, resulted in the isolation of four kaempferol glycosides (F1 ‒ F4), including a novel one, kaempferol 3-O-β -Dglucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside ( F2) (Figure 2, Table 2) [44]. It is interesting to mention that the compound kaempferitrin (F1) is obtained in an appreciable quantity of 0.2428% (w/w) from the leaves ofC. osmophloeum [44]. The hot water extract of leaves ofC. osmophloeum resulted in the identification of F1 and F3 [37]. The ethanolic extract of twigs from C. osmophloeum led to the isolation of kaempferol glycosides, F1 ‒ F3, and F5F10 (Figure 2, Table 2) [45]. Chemical examination of water extract of C. osmophloeum leaves resulted in the isolation of kaempferol glycosides F1 and F10 (Figure 2, Table 2) [46]. To continue, chemical investigations of the CHCl 3- and n-BuOH-soluble layer of the methanolic extract of the stems of C. osmophloeum resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, lignans, and benzenoids (Figure 2, Table 2) [47].

Figure 2: Chemical structures of non-essential oil metabolites from C. osmophloeum

On the other hand, lignans are an important part of the secondary metabolites of Cinnamomum species, which have high content and abundant structural types. The phytochemical investigations of the ethanol extracts of C. osmophloeum heartwood and roots, resulted in the isolation of various lignans including three novel structurally related lignan esters, one secolignan ester (L3) and two cyclolignan (or aryltetralin lignan) esters (L4 andL5) (Figure 2, Table 2) [48]. Chemical examination of then-butanol soluble fraction of 70% acetone extract from C. osmophloeum twig extracts, resulted in the isolation and structure identification of proanthocyanidins, cinnamtannin B1 ( A1) and parameritannin A1 (A2) (Figure 2, Table 2) [49]. Recently, a novel cyclopropanoid, 4(2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)cyclopropoxy)-2,6-dimethoxyphenol ( B5) is reported from the stems of C. osmophloeum (Figure 2, Table 2) [50].

No.

Name

Source / Extraction method

Ref.

 

Flavonoids

   

F1

Kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside or

Kaempferitrin

Leaves / n-butanol fraction of methanol extract

[43‒45]

Leaves / Water extract

[46]

Leaves / hot water extract

[71]

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

F2

Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→4)- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α -Lrhamnopyranoside

Leaves / n-butanol fraction of methanol extract

[44], [45]

F3

Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl(1→2)- α-L-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-α -Lrhamnopyranoside

Leaves / n-butanol fraction of methanol extract

[44], [45]

Leaves / hot water extract

[71]

F4

Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosy(1→4)- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α-Lrhamnopyranoside

Leaves / n-butanol fraction of methanol extract

[44]

F5

Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)- α-L-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-α -Lrhamnopyranoside

Twigs / 70% ethanol

[45]

F6

Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1→2)- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α -Lrhamnopyranoside

Twigs / 70% ethanol

[45]

F7

Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)- α-L-arabinofuranosyl-7-O-α -Lrhamnopyranoside

Twigs / 70% ethanol

[45]

F8

Kaempferol 3-O-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-Larabinofuranosyl-7-O-α-Lrhamnopyranoside

Twigs / 70% ethanol

[45]

F9

Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)- α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α -Lrhamnopyranoside

Twigs / 70% ethanol

[45]

F10

Kaempferol 7-O-α-L- rhamnopyranoside

Twigs/ ethanol

[43],

[81]

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

Leaves/ water extract

[46]

F11

Kaempferol 3-O-α-L-

rhamnopyranoside

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

F12

Kaempferol

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

F13

Kaempferol 3-O-α -Lrhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-Lrhamnopyranoside

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

F14

Dihydrokaempferol

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

 

Proanthocyanidins

   

A1

Cinnamtannin B1

Twigs / n-butanol fraction of 70% acetone extract

[49]

A2

Parameritannin A1

Twigs / n-butanol fraction of 70% acetone extract

[49]

 

Benzenoids

   

B1

Fumaric acid

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[43], [47]

B2

p-hydroxybenzadehyde

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

B3

p- hydroxybenzoic acid

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

EO49

Cinnamic acid

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

EO15

0

Coumarin

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

B4

p -dihydrocoumaric acid

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

EO6

trans -cinnamaldehyde

Stems / CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

B5

4-(2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5yl)cyclopropoxy)-2,6dimethoxyphenol

Stems

[50]

 

Lignans

   

L1

Secoisolariciresinol

Heartwood and roots/ethanol

[48]

L2

9,9′-di-O-feruloyl secoisolariciresinol

Heartwood and roots/ethanol

[48]

L3

9,9′-di-O-feruloyl-(+)-5,5′-dimethoxy secoisolariciresinol

Heartwood and roots/ethanol

[48]

L4

(7′S,8′R,8R )-lyoniresinol-9-O-(E)feruloyl ester

Heartwood and roots/ethanol

[48]

L5

(7′S,8′R,8R )-lyoniresinol-9,9′-di-O-(E)- feruloyl ester

Heartwood and roots/ethanol

[48]

L6

(−)-lyoniresinol

Heartwood and roots/ethanol

[48]

L7

(+)-yangambin

Stems/ CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

L8

(+)-sesamin

Terpenoids

Stems/ CHCl3- and n-BuOH fractions of methanolic extract

[47]

EO39

Camphor

Leaves

[40]

Table 2: The reported non-essential oil metabolites of C. osmophloeum

Pharmacological Activities of C. osmophloeum Extracts and Compounds

Pharmacological potential of essential oils (EOs)/components

Most of the chemical components in EOs of C. osmophloeum are low-molecular weight compounds, which can easily diffuse across cell membranes to induce biological reactions [7]. A couple of studies have proposed cinnamaldehyde to be a major functional compound for the antidiabetic activity of cinnamon [1]. The antibacterial activities of the EOs from leaves of two C. osmophloeum clones (A and B) were examined against nine strains of bacteria. The results showed that the MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations) of the B leaf oil were 500 µg/ml against both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella sp. and 250 µg/ml against the other 7 strains of bacteria (Table 3) [25]. The MICs of cinnamaldehyde against the Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis,Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, MRSA,K. pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., and Vibrio parahemolyticus are 500, 1000, 250, 250, 250, 250, 1000, 500, and 250 µg/ml, respectively (Table 3) [25]. The compound transcinnamaldehyde showed potent inhibitory activity against Jurkat (IC50=0.057µM) and U937 (IC50=0.076µM) cell viability, without affecting the viability of primary purified T cells and macrophages (Table 3) [51]. The leaf EOs from various geographical provenances showed potential antifungal effect against tree pathogensRhizoctonia solani, Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, Ganoderma australe and Fusarium solani [36], and inhibit the expression of pro-IL-1β, IL-1β and IL-6 in endotoxin-induced J774A.1 macrophages [39]. The leaf EOs of 92 cutting clones from a clonal orchard of C. osmophloeum showed antioxidant activity [38]. The EOs of C. osmophloeum leaves showed potential xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibition and anti-hyperuricemia effect in mice [37], and the major component in it EO06 showed inhibitory effect in controlling the red imported fire ant [34]. The mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf EOs and their constituents from six chemotypes of C. osmophloeum is examined against the three mosquito species, and the results demonstrated that the cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type showed superior inhibitory effect against Aedes albopictus larvae [35]. The compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde, Τ-cadinol, and α-cadinol are the major components of leaf EOs to the observed anti-inflammatory activity of C. osmophloeum in the endotoxin-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages [52]. The leaf EO components showed in vivo hepatoprotective effects through reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as hepatic inflammation and, necrotic and apoptotic tissue injury in lipopolysaccharide/Dgalactosamine (LPS/D-GalN)-treated mice [53]. The compound trans-cinnamaldehyde (EO6, 1 mg/kg) showed in vivo cytokine modulatory effects through increased serum concentrations of IL‐2, IL‐4 and IL‐10, but not IFN‐γ in ovalbumin (OVA)‐primed balb/c mice [54]. The EOs fromC. osmophloeum leaves exert in vivo antioxidant [29], and in vivo anti-diabetic effect through improved insulin secretion [31]. The linalool chemotype leaf EOs from C. osmophloeum showed, in vivo protective effect in the endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response through suppression of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways [55]. The leaf EOs (13 mg/kg body weight) of C. osmophloeum reduced the endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation through the inhibition of the expression of molecules in both TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways [40]. Additionally, it is confirmed that both cinnamaldehyde (EO06) and linalool (EO12) are the responsible active compounds for the observed biological activity [40]. The thermos-stability of cinnamaldehyde-chemotype C. osmophloeum leaf EOs is stabilized by microencapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, and the microencapsulated oil showed superior xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity [56]. The C. osmophloeum ct. linalool leaf oil showed in vivo antidepressant and motor coordination activities in a rodent animal model [57]. Additionally, the thermal degradation of linalool-chemotype C. osmophloeum leaf EOs is stabilized by its microencapsulation with β-cyclodextrin [58]. On the other hand, twigs EOs and its major constituents from the twigs of C. osmophloeum showed anti-inflammatory activity through reduced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages [41]. The reported pharmacological activities of C. osmophloeum EOs and their major constituents are presented as in Table 3.

Comp. NO or Tested

Sample

Reported activity

Ref.

EO1 (benzaldehyde)

Mosquito larvicidal activity againstAedes albopictus, LC50=47.0µg/ml, LC 90=85.5µg/ml

[35]

EO6 (trans-

cinnamaldehyde)

Antibacterial against E. coli,P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis,S. aureus, S. epidermidis, MRSA, K.

pneumoniae , Salmonella sp., and V. parahemolyticus

[25]

 

Cytotoxic effect against Jurkat (IC50=0.057µM) and U937 (IC50=0.076µM) cell viability, without affecting the viability of primary purified T cells and macrophages (Fang et al., 2004).

[51]

 

Mosquito larvicidal activity (LC50=29ppm, LC 90=48ppm)

[19]

 

Antioxidant activity determined using DPPH assay. IC 50=11 µg/ml

[38]

 

Cytotoxicity against human leukemia K562 cells, induce apoptosis through ROS production, glutathione depletion, and caspase activation

[59]

 

Inhibit xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity (IC50= 8.4 μg/ml). In vivo- 150 mg/kg, oral administration reduced the serum uric acid by 84.48% as compared to the hyperuricemic control mice.

[37]

 

Inhibits proinflammatory cytokines secretion from activated macrophages through suppression of intracellular signaling

[60]

 

Inhibitory effect in controlling the red imported fire ant. LT50 = 32.2 min

[34]

 

Mosquito larvicidal activity againstAedes albopictus, LC50=48.1µg/ml, LC 90=89.1µg/ml

[35]

 

Antipathogenic against plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani IC50=56.4μg/mL

[61]

 

In vivo 100 μmol/kg, hepatoprotective effect, attenuated LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury, reduced the serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-6

[53]

 

In vivo 1 mg/kg, cytokine modulatory effect

[54]

 

In vivo anti-inflammatory through reduced TLR4 and/or NLRP3 signaling pathways

[40]

 

Antifungal activity against wood-decay fungi. Antifungal action attributed to fumigation instead of direct contact

[62]

EO8 (Eugenol)

Mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus, LC50=67.4µg/ml.

[35]

 

Antipathogenic against plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani IC50=47.8 μg/mL

[61]

EO10 (trans -cinnamyl acetate)

Antioxidant activity determined using DPPH assay. IC 50=10.4 µg/ml

[38]

 

Mosquito larvicidal activity againstAedes albopictus, LC50=52.7µg/ml, LC 90=99.3µg/ml

[35]

EO11 (Caryophyllene oxide)

Mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus, LC50=65.6µg/ml.

[35]

EO12 (Linalool)

Antioxidant activity determined using DPPH assay. IC 50=29.7 µg/ml

[38]

EO45 (cis-citral, Neral)

Mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus, LC50=70.7µg/ml.

[35]

EO57 (β-cubebene)

Antioxidant activity determined using DPPH assay. IC 50=19.3 µg/ml

[38]

EO60

(Aromadendrene)

In vivo 100 μmol/kg, hepatoprotective effect, attenuated LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury, reduced the serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-6

[53]

EO90 (τ-cadinol)

In vivo 100 μmol/kg, hepatoprotective effect, attenuated LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury, reduced the serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-6

[53]

EO92 (α-cadinol)

In vivo 100 μmol/kg, hepatoprotective effect, attenuated LPS/D-GalN-induced liver injury, reduced the serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, IL-6

[53]

Leaf essential oils

Antibacterial against Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, methicillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp., and Vibrio parahemolyticus.

[25]

Leaf essential oils

Antitermitic activity against Coptotermes formosanus

[26]

Leaf essential oils

Antimite activity

[63]

Leaf essential oils

Antifungal activities against tree pathogenic fungi,Rhizoctonia solani,Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, Ganoderma australe and Fusarium solani.

[36]

Leaf essential oil

Mosquito larvicidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti. LC50 for cinnamaldehyde type and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type in 24 h were 36 ppm (LC90=79 ppm) and 44 ppm (LC90 =85ppm), respectively.

[19]

Leaf essential oil

Anti-inflammatory- 60 µg/mL, inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 but not for TNF-α in LPS-treated

J774A.1 murine macrophage

[39]

Leaf essential oils of 92 cutting clones from a clonal orchard

Antioxidant activities determined using DPPH assay

[38]

Leaf essential oils

In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibition (IC50=16.3 µg/ml)

[37]

Leaf essential oils

Inhibitory effect in controlling the red imported fire ant. LT50 of 2% leaf essential oil is

105.0 min

[34]

6 chemo types of leaf essential oil

Mosquito larvicidal activities against Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Armigeres subalbatus larvae. The LC 50 of cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde/cinnamyl acetate type against A albopictus larvae are 40.8 µg/ml (LC90 = 81.7 µg/ml) and 46.5 µg/ml

(LC90 = 83.3 µg/ml), respectively

[35]

Leaf essential oil

Anti-inflammatory activity in endotoxin-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages

[52]

Leaf essential oil

Antipathogenic against plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani IC50=79.3μg/mL

[61]

Leaf essential oil

In vivo antioxidant activity against juglone-induced oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. Enhanced of antioxidant-genes, SOD-3, GST-4

[29]

Leaf essential oil

In vivo antidiabetic activity in STZ-induced rats. 12.5 mg/(kg bw)- reduced fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and, elevated plasma and pancreatic insulin levels. However, 25 and 50 mg/(kg bw) shown to be less effective than that of 12.5 mg/(kg bw). Ameliorated oxidative stress and proinflammatory environment in the pancreas.

[31]

Leaf essential oils

Larvicidal activity against An. gambiae s.s. Dose and time dependent. The LC50 = 22.18 to 58.15 μg/ml (in laboratory), 11.91 to 63.63 μg/ml (in semi-field environments).

[32]

Essential oil

alloaromadendrene

from mixed-type

leaves

In vivo antioxidant activities against juglone-induced oxidative stress on Caenorhabditis elegans. Prolongs the Lifespan in C. elegans

[64]

trans -cinnamaldehyde

chemotype leaf

essential oils

Anti-inflammatory, inhibit H. pylori growth and postinfectiously inhibit IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in H. pylori- and IL-1β-pretreated AGS cells

[65]

Linalool chemotype

leaf essential oils

6.5, 13, or 26 mg/kg, in vivo protective effect in endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response through suppression of the TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways

[55]

S -(+)-linalool and essential oil from

leaves

In vivo leaf essential oil-250, 500 mg/kg, S-(+)-linalool (500 mg/kg), R-(−)-linalool (500 mg/kg). anxiolytic properties- reduced serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in mice brain

[66]

S-(+)-linalool and essential oil from

leaves

In vivo hypolipidemic effects- inhibited lipid accumulation through down-regulation of

3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation

[67]

Leaf essential oils

In vivo anti-inflammatory, 13 mg/kg body weight- reduced endotoxin-induced systemic inflammation through inhibition of expression of molecules in both TLR4 and NLRP3 pathways

[40]

Cinnamaldehyde-

chemotype leaf

essential oil

Thermostability stabilized by its microencapsulation with β-cyclodextrin, and microencapsulated oil showed superior xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity

[56]

Leaf essential oils

Antifungal activity against brown root rot disease fungus Phellinus noxius

[68]

Twigs essential oil

Anti-inflammatory, reduced NO and PGE2 in activated RAW 264.7 macrophages

[41]

Linalool leaf essential oil

In vivo motor coordination and antidepressant activities in rodent animal model

[57]

Linalool-chemotype leaf essential oil

Thermal degradation is stabilized by its microencapsulation with β-cyclodextrin

[58]

Table 3: The biological activities of C. osmophloeum essential oil / components.

Pharmacological activities of C. osmophloeum crude extracts

Studies are reported that C. osmophloeum crude extracts showed various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic, and wound-healing effects. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease that affects about 7% of the world's people and it is expected to increase by 5.5% in 2025 [69]. DM type 2 (T2DM) accounts for 85–90% of all diagnosed diabetic patients with high medical and social costs [69]. Cinnamon also has a long history of therapeutic use for various health problems including diabetes [1]. However, it was not until the past decade that the possible antidiabetic role of cinnamon in humans and in experimental animals has been investigated scientifically [1]. The results of the antidiabetic effect of cinnamon are inconsistent [1]. Although several clinical studies and a few meta-analyses have confirmed the usefulness of cinnamon as an antidiabetic agent, the results of other clinical studies and meta-analysis have shown cinnamon to be ineffective in oral glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, lipid profile, or peripheral insulin levels in type 2 diabetes patients [1].

Rao et al., (2007) [70] reported that the chloroform and methanol extracts of C. osmophloeum bark showed anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties through the reduced inflammatory mediators (NO, TNF-α and IL12) production in activated macrophages, and tumor cells proliferation, respectively [70]. Oral administration of C. osmophloeum leaves hot‐water extracts, reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low‐density lipoprotein (LDL‐C) levels in hyperlipidemic hamsters [71]. The phenolic content of C. osmophloeum water extracts is 160.9 mg/g, which showed a potential antioxidant activity with an IC50 values of 10.3 and 16.9 μg/mL, for DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging assays, respectively (Table 4) [46]. The ethanolic extract of C. osmophloeum leaves, dose-dependently (10, 25, 50, 100, and 200

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