opinion article

A Brief Overview: How to Use Qualitative Research When Identifying Health Care in Disadvantage Families a Step by Step Approach

Ernestine Bady Davis1* and Ella M. Davis-Temple2

1Retired Emerita Nursing Professor College of Nursing, University of North Alabama, Florence, Alabama, USA

2Director of Research and Sponsored Program, Alabama State University, Montgomery, Alabama, USA

*Corresponding author: Ernestine Bady Davis, Retired Emerita Nursing Professor, University of North Alabama, 1 Harrison Plaza, Florence, Alabama 35632, USA. Tel: +1-2567675756; Email: ebdavis@una.edu

Received Date: 24 March, 2019; Accepted Date: 17 April, 2019; Published Date: 23 April, 2019

Citation: Davis EB, Temple EMD (2019) A Brief Overview: How to Use Qualitative Research When Identifying Health Care in Disadvantage Families a Step by Step Approach. Int J Nurs Health Care Res 3: 078. DOI: 10.29011/IJNHR-078.1000078


Let’s discuss the process of qualitative research. Welcome researchers and those interested in healthcare qualitative research. First, stop and don’t panic because the process will be fun. You will be performing original research by uncovering new information, discovering true feelings and exploring ideas seldom explored.

First, before we start, calm down, close your eyes, breath slowly until you feel a positive blood flowing internally, you are centered and grounded. This Opinionative Writer (OW) plans to take you on a humanistic journey by providing a step by step guide for you to follow as you proceed through the research process. A journey that will enhance the healthcare field, by recognizing issues that will enable a better understanding of the families, issues, perceptions and needs impacting disadvantages faced by chosen ethnicities to stand strong and express themselves.  I am sharing with you an exciting way to view qualitative research and a simple methodology you can use to enjoy conducting Qualitative Research (Q.R). The writer wants you to feel elated and have peace of mind by understanding how importance qualitative research is. It allows for the discovery of new concepts, ideas and brings to light matters seldom addressed. It is indeed a wonderful internal feeling when you step out and walk the path that will enable you to identify and solve (new) problems. Problems you might have seen but just didn’t know what to do, where to start or the true root of problem.

Let start this process. Research is exciting, rewarding and it opens close doors to many. We will be stepping upward to Qualitative Research. We will call this the stepladder to uncovering the truth approach or truth-stepladder. If you are afraid of heights, try to overcome your fear and walk with me. As you walk up these steps, let the excitement of the journey permeate through your mind. First step is Thinking, think before starting to write and proceed through this process. Think about problems you have identified, but don’t quite understand, want to clarify and identify meaningful solutions. Thinking in a quiet place will provide you with clarity of mind and reduce environmental distractions. With this mind set ability, clarification will come, you will have stronger ideas and numerous problems will begin to fill your mind.

For example: Reading and constantly hearing about numerous disparities in disadvantage families, might trigger your mind to do research to clarify and or even delete previous changes, perhaps they were never needed in the first place. Another example: You might think, are there health and /or other stated    disparities in families who are not in the disadvantage category? Hopefully, now I have you thinking, however it is time for us to take the first step up.

Step 1: Think -*Think about what you have just felt. It is important that you think and start with your ideas.

Step2: Purpose-*Purpose is to uncover and identify lack of health care in disadvantage families. Qualitative Research will serve as a purpose of deciphering how individuals in the family personally feel about health care in their family. Additionally, you will decipher and expose current and potential disadvantages and problems if your subject state and identify them. Exciting!

Step 3: Research Task Questions-*Design 4-6 research task questions, questions must be related to the underline purpose and focus on discovery.

Step 4: Significant of your study-*Identify and openly ask questions that are designed to address and uncover what you suspect might be critical health disparities/issues impacting disadvantages families. Remember, these could be sensitive issues that may not have been address in health care but can be identified per the families in your research.

Step 5: Theoretical Perception-*What are people outside of this families think about health care in disadvantage families. You goal will be to break down barriers and clarify misunderstanding from the outside and inside the family structure.

Step 6: Conceptual Tools-*O.W.  knows that perceptions vary from person to person and are unique. Reality truly is grounded is each person’s experiences. What one-person experience maybe totally different from another experience. Your job is to acknowledge and capture ALL perceptions. This is the originality of your research.

Step7: Literature Review-*See what current researcher have identified and uncovered as critical components of your research. This will establish a baseline for what has been identified and support the originality of your findings should they vary from previous findings.

Step 8: Participants and setting-*Subjects selected, socio economic status/related health problems-collected during research process. One on one interviews or focus groups which ever qualitative method you use, ensure subjects are in a comfortable environment where they are free to express themselves.

Step 9: Data Collection and Analysis-*Q.R. fact finding sources will consist of interviews that are transcribed verbatim. However, your notes and summary sheets must be recorded after each interview to capture emotional and interview feelings address bias.

Analysis: Use qualitative categorizing to identify themes in your research. Once an interview is completed pull out specific references that have meaning and cut across data to produce themes. Themes will be found throughout the interviews and used to categorized findings. Give each theme an appropriate TITLE. All TITLES must relate to your research question to discover and uncover health care issues.

Stay Focus We Are Almost to the Top of the Steps

Several themes will surface within each interview. I suggest closing your eyes and say each theme as related to your notes. Ask yourself questions. Did many families express similar health problems? You are identifying cross cutting themes.  You are doing GREAT. Write all themes in your Note Pad.

Step10: Summary and Findings. You have reached the top of the truth-stepladder! Look down and see how far you have climbed. Each step has taken you one step higher to understand your research problem. This is the EASY ONE. Now is your time to tell me what you found and issues that should be included and address in healthcare.  YOU HAVE REACHED THE TOP. These are my opinions to help researchers move up the truth-stepladder to reveal unique themes related to successful qualitative research.

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International Journal of Nursing and Health Care Research