Advances in Biochemistry and Biotechnology (ISSN: 2574-7258)

Article / short communication

"Catalysts in the Hydrogenation of Oils Technology"

Majidova Nargiza Kakhramonovna* and Kadirov Yuldashkhon Kadirovitch

Bukhara Engineering-Technological Institute, Bukhara City, Republic of Uzbekistan

*Corresponding author: Majidova Nargiza Kakhramonovna, Bukhara Engineering-Technological Institute, Bukhara City, Uzbekistan. Tel: +998652237884; Fax: +998652236197: Email: kafedra-03@mail.ru

Received Date: 12 June, 2017; Accepted Date: 13 July, 2017; Published Date:  20 July, 2017

1.  Abstract

Improvement of quality of fats can be carried out by change of triglyceride structure of oils and fats in the various ways of their modification. The work is directed on improvement of quality and maintenance of food safety of fat-oil, received by hydrogenation of cotton oil, by selection of scientifically valid highly effective technologies and catalyst systems. Object of research were the refined deodorized cotton oil, powdery and stationary floatable catalyst systems on the basis of nickel, copper and various promoted additives, possessing high hydrogenating properties. The stationary floatable catalysts, containing one and two promoted additives are analyzed. Catalyst hydrogenation of cotton oil were carried out in identical technological modes at which the basic properties of stationary floatable catalysts are established. Pressure of hydrogen has the greatest influence of fat-oil qualitative measures in the course of continuous hydrogenation. In these conditions, the greatest influence on selectivity of process renders a combination of the raised temperatures to enough high-volume velocity on oil. It is established that the optimal catalyst systems for production of firm food fat-oil of high-quality and food safety are powdery and developed stationary floatable catalysts on the basis of nickel, copper and promotor additives. Such catalyst systems have allowed to lower quantity of trance-isomerized fat acids in fat-oil to 5-7 % and to provide maintenance constancy of linoleic acids.

2. Keywords: Conditions of Hydrogenation Catalysts; Cottonseed Oil; Food Safety Fats; Hydrogenation Technology; Hydrogenated Fat Food; Quality Indicators; Stationary and Powdered Catalyst; Trans Fatty Acids Isomerization

1.      Introduction

Improvement of quality of fats can be carried out by change of triglyceride structure of oils and fats in the various ways of their modification. Now the basic methods of modification of oils and fats are technology hydrogenation, hydro interesterification and interesterification [1]. In industrial practice, most accepted way of catalyst modifications of vegetable oils and fats is the technology of hydrogenation with use of various types of catalysts [2].

Therefor widely scale researches in the field of development of new technologies and hydrogenation catalysts which main advantage is quality maintenance and food safety catalyst modified fats proceed [3].

1.1.  Purpose of Work: The work is directed on improvement of quality and maintenance of food safety of fat-oil, received by hydrogenation of cotton oil, by selection of scientifically valid highly effective technologies and catalyst systems. 

1.2.Research Course: Object of research were the refined deodorized cotton oil, powdery and stationary floatable catalyst systems on the basis of nickel, copper and various promoted additives, possessing high hydrogenating properties. For researches, basic kinetic laws of process in flowing conditions in the presence of stationary floatable catalysts is used plant of a high pressure with reactors of columned type [4]. For the analysis and an estimation of quality, used modern physical, chemical and physical-chemical methods and mathematical processing of the received experimental data [5,6].

2.    Results and Discussion

In researches on catalyst modifications of cotton oil are used various catalyst systems of new modification. The stationary floatable catalysts, containing one and two promoted additives are analyzed. Componential structure of the analyzed stationary floatable catalysts is resulted in Table 1 and 2.

As the most effective powdery catalyst it is used catalyst "Nysosel-800" made by firm Engelhard in Holland [7]

 In researches are studied nickel-copper-aluminum (25.0:25.0:46.0... 48.5) alloys with the joint combination of two promoted additives.

Catalyst hydrogenation of cotton oil were carried out in identical technological modes at which the basic properties of stationary floatable catalysts are established. 

Research of influence of temperature for velocity of saturation of cotton oil at presence of non-promotor and promotor nickel-copper-aluminum catalysts carried out at following conditions: pressure 300 kPа, velocity of feed of hydrogen of 60 ml h-1, volume velocity of feed of oil 1.2 h-1. 

With rise in temperature velocity of saturation increases, thus intensive growth of velocity is observed at 2000С. At this size decrease sharply that specifies in limitation of process by hydrogen diffusion [8]. 

Pressure of hydrogen has the greatest influence of fat-oil qualitative measures (Table 3) in the course of continuous hydrogenation. In these conditions, the greatest influence on selectivity of process renders a combination of the raised temperatures to enough high-volume velocity on oil Table 3.

5        Conclusion 

It is established that the optimal catalyst systems for production of firm food fat-oil of high-quality and food safety are powdery and developed stationary floatable catalysts on the basis of nickel, copper and promotor additives. Such catalyst systems have allowed to lower quantity of trance-isomerized fat acids in fat-oil to 5-7 % and to provide maintenance constancy of linoleic acids.

 The most comprehensible technological modes of manufacture of the high-quality hydrogenated fats were temperature 1800С, pressure 100 kPa and volume velocity of feed of oil 1.2-1.5 h-1. Such conditions have allowed lowering the quantitative maintenance of trance-isomerized mono-non-saturated fat acids in food fat-oil.


 

The catalyst, №

 

Alloys

Parity of components

Initial

1

Nickel-copper-aluminium

25:25:50 *

2

Nickel-copper-aluminium

37.5:12.5:50 **

Promrtived

3 **

Palladium

0.1

4 **

Rhodium

0.5

5 **

Ruthenium

0.15

6*

Rhenium 

1.5

7*

Germanium

1.5

8*

Tin

1.5

9*

Vanadium

1.5

Note (*, **): promotor is entered instead of an aluminium part


Table 1: Componential structure of new types of nickel-copper-aluminum floatable stationary catalysts.

 

 

The catalyst, №

 

The additive

The maintenance, %

10

Palladium

0.5

11

Ruthenium

0.5

12

Rhenium

2

13

Germanium

1.5

14

Tin

1.5

15

Vanadium

2


Table 2: Componential structure of new types of nickel-copper-rhodium (0.5 %) - aluminum alloys, promoted additives.

 

 

Modification conditions

 

I.n % J2

The maintenance of trance-acids, %

Acid number mg KOH/g

Temperature of Melting, ͦС

Hardness g/cm

Temperature, 0С

Pressure kPa

Velocity of feed of oil, h-1

200

300

1.8

74.1

11

0.2

34.5

420

200

300

1.5

72.1

14

0.21

36.1

500

200

100

1

64.2

18

0.27

37.2

540

180

100

1

63.7

19

0.29

37.1

600

180

100

1.2

66.4

21

0.35

38.3

620


Table 3: The characteristic of fat-oil, received by continuous catalyst modification of cotton oil.

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3.       Akramov OA (2008) Modification of cottonseed oil on efficient catalysts. Cand Tech Sciences.

4.       Mazhidova NK (2010) Improving quality and ensuring food safety of saloms obtained by hydrogenation of cottonseed oil. Cand Tech Sciences: 26 с.

5.       Manual on methods of research, technological control and accounting of production of oil and fat industry. I-VI, book. 1967-1989 гг.

6.       Adler, Yu P, Markova EV, Granovsky, Yu V (1976) Planning an experiment when searching for optimal conditions: Science.

7.       Mazhidova NK, Akramov OA, Khuzhanov I.Kh, Majidov K Kh (2007) Perfection of the technology of the catalytic modification of cottonseed oil / Proceedings of the Republican Scientific and Technical Conference, Tashkent: 279-281.

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Citation: Kadirovitch KY, Kakhramonovna MN (2017) Catalysts in the Hydrogenation of Oils Technology. Adv Biochem Biotechnol 2: 129. DOI: 10.29011/2574-7258.000029
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