Journal of Diabetes and Treatment (ISSN: 2574-7568)

Article / review article

"Low Glycemic Index Foods: A Resolution to Ameliorate Type 2 Diabetes"

Caresma Chuwa*, Babita Sharma, Mariam A Mwita, Francisca B Gwandu, Mwita JM Waibe

Department of Food Science and Technology, Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, India

*Corresponding author: Caresma Chuwa, Department of Food Science and Technology, Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, India

Received Date: 06 February, 2021; Accepted Date: 24 February, 2021; Published Date: 01 March, 2021

Abstract

Type-2 diabetes (T2D) disorder is among non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence at a worldwide level. It results once the body doesn't create enough hormones or the body cannot use the hormone it produces to manage the blood glucose at normal range. The critical stage of diabetes results in health complication including heart diseases, stroke, nephrosis, blindness, nerve harm, leg and foot amputations and death. The danger factor for this disease include poor diet especially eating many refined foods, sugary snacks, less intake of fruits and vegetables, lack of physical activities, overweight and obesity. Changing the life-style towards healthy diets including low glycemic index foods, highly intake of fruits and vegetables, regularly physical activities, control of overweight and obesity will greatly crop your probabilities of obtaining this sickness. Therefore to stop this condition, promptly action should be taken seriously concerning the modifiable factors that influence its development like lifestyle and dietary habits. This review summarizes the list of low glycemic index foods which may be employed by T2D patients to mitigate the consequences and reduce the death rate.

Keywords

Low glycemic index foods; Lifestyle; Noncommunicable diseases; Type-2 diabetes

Introduction

Diabetes type-2 (DT2) is one of the foremost noncommunicable and fastest growing public health problems within the world, could be a condition difficult to treat and expensive to manage. It has been estimated that the quantity of diabetes sufferers within the world will double from this value of about 190 million to 325 million during the following 25 years [1-3]. Individuals with T2D are at a high risk of developing a spread of debilitating complications like disorder such as peripheral vascular disease, nephropathy, changes to the retina and blindness that may result in disability and premature death. It also imposes important medical and economic burdens to the relations and Government. Genetic susceptibility and environmental influences seem to be the foremost important factors to blame for the event of this condition. However, a drastic increase of physical inactivity, overweight, obesity, and T2D has been recently observed the actual fact indicates that obesity and physical inactivity may constitute the most reasons for the increasing burden of diabetes within the developed world [4-10]. Fortunately, because environmental factors are modifiable, disease manifestation from these factors is essentially preventable. Diet is one amongst the key factors now linked to a large range of diseases including diabetes. The quantity and sort of food consumed may be a fundamental determinant of human health. Diet constitutes a vital aspect of the management of diabetes, which can involve diet alone, diet with oral hypoglycemic drugs, or diet with insulin [11-15]. Little relation has been found between total carbohydrate intake and also the risk of T2D [16]. Diet is individualized looking on age, weight, gender, health condition, and occupation etc. The Low Glycemic Index foods are proposed during this critical review to help those who are suffering with T2D to regulate the amount of blood sugar in addition as preventing the diabetes related complications.

Factors which influence type-2 diabetes

There are number of factors which are attributed to the event of T2D such as sedentary lifestyle [17], physical inactivity [18], smoking [19] and alcohol consumption [20]. The epidemiological studies revealed that obesity is that the most vital risk factor for T2D, which can influence the event of insulin resistance and disease progression [21]. The study by [22] revealed that more than 90% of DT2 attributed by overweight and obesity. Likewise, overweight and obesity are strongly inherited [23]. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as a treatable sleep disorder is prevalent among overweight and obese adults has become a novel, modifiable danger factor relevant to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and may influence on the development of pre-diabetes (20%-67%) and T2D (15%-30%), independent of shared risk factors [24-26]. Several studies have indicated that OSA in T2D patients is much more prevalent (36%–60%) than in the general population [27, 28]. Additionally, diet is taken into account as a modifiable risk factor for T2D. Studies have shown that a low-fiber diet with a high glycemic index is positively related to a better risk of T2D [29] and specific dietary fatty acids may affect insulin resistance and therefore the risk of diabetes in varying degrees [30]. Total and saturated fat intake is related to an increased risk of T2D independently of BMI, but higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid has the alternative effect, especially among leaner and younger men [31]. Frequent consumption of processed meat, but not other meats, may increase the chance of T2D after adjustment for BMI, prior weight change, alcohol and energy intake [31]. Soft drinks have also been bounded up with increased risk of T2D [32] and metabolic syndrome [33], because they’re directly related to BMI [34].

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

The basic signs and symptoms of diabetes like polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia show up many times in T2D with very high levels of hyperglycaemia. Severe weight loss is common solely in T2D if remains undetected for a protracted period. Unexplained weight loss, fatigue, restlessness andbodypainalsoarefrequentsignsof undetected diabetes. Symptoms that are mild or have gradual improvement should also continue to be unnoticed. Other signs include waterlessness, delayed wound healing, genital areas and decreased vision, impotence or impotency, reactive hypoglycaemia, burning, ache numbness on feet, acanthoses nigricans-the presence of velvety dark patches of the neck, arm pit, groin which is an indicator of insulin resistance, itching, tract infection and irritability.

Complications associated with type 2 diabetes

Having a T2D can contribute to short and long term complications such as macrovascular ailments (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, heart attacks, coronary artery disease, strokes, cerebral vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease), microvascular diseases (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) and cancers.

Cardiovascular disease

The sickness may additionally be a principal reason in the back of mortality and morbidity in each prediabetes and T2D, the possible mechanism that is oxidative stress that has essential effects on atherogenesis and willmake contributionsto Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation [35]. Prevention of premature cardiovascular events involves complex interactive treatments with antihypertensive, lipid-lowering agents, and routine low-dose aspirin administration [36]. The subsequent listed are CVDs risk factors:

• Established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

• Hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or on hypertension therapy)

• High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol < 35 mg/dL

• Triglyceride level > 250 mg/dL

• Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol > 70 and calculated 10 year cardiovascular event risk > 7.5 or on lipid lowering therapy

Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is one amongst the foremost important microvascular complications, whose earliest manifestation is the presence of minute amounts of urinary protein (microalbumin) which can’t be detected in routine urinalysis, but is detectable by specific testing. If the detection will be worn out the sooner phase, the progression of nephropathy will be prevented. This is however, frequently disregarded due to the unawareness that the events urinalysis lacks sensitivity in detecting microalbuminuria [36]. Sexual dysfunction commonly takes place in young-aged diabetic sufferers due to the fact of oxidative stress in cavernous tissues [37].

Diabetic retinopathy

The retina is that the most vascular vicinity inside the body, because it desires excessive oxygen to convert mild into electricity inside the rods and cones. Chronic hyperglycemia can also motive microvascular damage to the retinal vessels, leading to edema and/or hemorrhage into the retina or the humor due to vascular permeability. In fact, dysglycemia often happens prior to the analysis of diabetes patients, because nearly 20% of newly identified diabetes sufferers exhibit proof of retinopathy [38].

Cancers

Epidemiologic proof has validated that diabetes may elevate the risk of most cancers like colorectal cancer [39], liver sickness [40], bladder most cancers [41-42] kidney most cancers [43], which varies having a bet on the sub sites of unique cancers. Mechanisms underlying the association of T2D with cancer threat are as follows: firstly T2D and cancers normally share many danger factors like age, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, higher consumption of saturated fats, sophisticated carbohydrates, and a few psychology elements [44]. Secondly, hyperinsulinemia is one in every of the foremost characteristics of T2D. Meanwhile it would promote carcinogenesis directly [43] because it may promote the proliferation of colonic tumors in vitro and in experimental animals [45]. Besides, hyperinsulinemia may increase the amount of IGF1 which has mitogenic and antiapoptotic actions on cancer cells [46] and also the plasma or serum level of IGF-1 is additionally positively correlated with the danger of cancers [47,48].

The role of low glycemic index foods in preventing type 2 diabetes

Glycemic Index (GI):The glycemic index (GI) is one of the nutritional devices that can rate the exceptional trendy of carbohydrates we eat. The index measures how rapidly the carbohydrates throughout a unique meals influence your blood glucose. GI is defined as the location under the glucose response curve after consumption of fifty g carbohydrate from a test food divided by way of the world below the curve after consumption of fifty g carbohydrate from amanipulatemeals(either white bread or glucose) [49,50]. It is a classification of the blood glucose-raising achievable of carbohydrate ingredients relative to glucose or bread [51]. Generally, there are three categories of foods supported their GI values: The high-GI foods (> 70), intermediate-GI foods (>55 - < 70) and low-GI foods (< 55) [51]. By choosing low glycemic index foods, the matter of raising glucose is going to be minimized. Additionally, the consumption of high glycemic index food will increase glucose more significantly. It may also cause a higher post-meal blood glucose reading.

Glycemic Load (GL):GL accounts for the way lot of carbohydrate is within the food and the way every gram of carbohydrate within the food raises glucose levels. GL is assessed as: low (< 10), intermediate [49, 53-61] and excessive (> 20). GL may want to be a metric used as a foundation for weight loss, or diabetes control [53].

Mathematically



Where available carbohydrate = total carbohydrate – dietary fiber.

One unit of GL approximates the glycemic effect of 1 g of glucose. Typical diets comprise from 60-180 GL units per day. Dietary glycemic overload should sooner or later end in increased threat of diabetes and obesity [53]. The GL of a food relies on 2 factors: the GI of the food and therefore the serving size and intrinsically, increases or decreases in GL is often achieved by varying either or both terms. Therefore, a low GL food is achieved by either decreasing the GI of the food or by eliminating most of the carbohydrates from the diet [49].

Low Glycemic index foods:The Glycemic index and glycemic load provide data about how foods have an effect on blood glucose and insulin. The decrease a food’s glycemic index or glycemic load, the less it influences glucose and insulin levels. Find the list of the glycemic index and glycemic load for over one hundred frequent meals that it may be consumed and ameliorateT2D. Table 1 under incorporates a listing of varied foods with their respective glycemic index, serving size and glycemic load per serving. From this listing humans ought to pick low glycemic index foods to stop or control type2 diabetes Table 1.

Conclusions

The T2D and its associated issues impose heavy fitness burdens global and have an effect on people economically, socially and politically. There are some elements which attributable to the illnesses like bodily in-activities, unhealthy diets and other factors like smoking. It is evident that diabetes can be averted among pre diabetic individuals by upgrades in physical endeavor and weight reduction plan habits. Such strategies will forestall improvement of diabetic issues to a good extent. The mix of healthful diets especially low glycemic index ingredients is positive when used as mono therapy. Good life-style (healthy foods and exercise) related to negative effects, like weight gain, hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal outcomes or disorder. Hopefully humans will change their life-style towards healthy ingredients collectively with workout to ameliorate continual ailments such as T2Ds.

Recommendations

• High fiber foods are recommended such as whole wheat bread, brown rice, whole cereals, fruits and vegetables, legume and pulses, etc.

• All refined sugars such as glucose, sucrose, and their products (soft drinks, sweets, toffees, etc.) and honey should be avoided, except during severe illness or episodes of hypoglycemia. These foods contain simple sugar, which is easily absorbed causing rapid rise in blood sugar.

• Animal fat such as butter, lard, egg yolk, and different meals excessive in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol need to be decreased to a minimum and be changed with vegetable oils and fish oils in particular polyunsaturated fats.

• Salt should be reduced whether hypertensive or not.

• Protein (fish, meat, beans, crab, crayfish, soya bean, chicken, etc.) and salt are constrained for those with diabetic nephropathy.

• Cigarette smoking need to be prevented through diabetic patients.

• Alcohol has to be taken solely in moderation

• The items allowed for free consumption include: Water, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, onions, cucumber, aubergine, peppers, and vegetable salad besides cream. Any company of tea, coffee, or drinks that incorporate very low or no calories.

• For patients too sick to devour stable food, a fluid or semisolid diet be substituted (papaya, soya bean, custard, etc.).

• Patients handled with insulin or certain oral hypoglycemic agents, e.g., sulfonylureas need to be suggested to eat usually and often to stop hypoglycemia- three ingredients a day plus appropriate snacks in between, e.g., clean fruits.

• Small ingredients spaced over the day, as an alternative than 1 or 2 large meals, are useful in averting post-pyramidal peaks in blood sugar.

• Physical things to do such as walking,riding a bicycle, dancing, running, jumping etc. have to be severely conducted every day in order to manipulate physique weight.

• Low Glycemic Index meals must be chosen amongst the sorts’ current in the table 1 so as to forestall blood glucose elevation and other ailmentsrelated to T2Ds.

• Natural fruit juices are mostly recommended than commercial juices because contain low glycemic index and glycemic load.

Acknowledgement

We would like to express our special thanks to (Dr Krishan Datt Sharma) head of Department of Food Science and Technology who gave us facilities to accomplish this review article.


FOOD

Glycemic index

(glucose = 100)

Serving size (grams)

Glycemic load

per serving

BAKERY PRODUCTS

Banana cake, made with sugar

47

60

14

Banana cake, made without sugar

55

60

12

Sponge cake, plain

46

63

17

Vanilla cake made from packet mix with vanilla frosting (Betty Crocker)

42

111

24

Apple, made with sugar

44

60

13

Apple, made without sugar

48

60

9

Waffles, Aunt Jemima (Quaker Oats)

76

35

10

Bagel, white, frozen

72

70

25

Baguette, white, plain

95

30

15

Coarse barley bread, 75-80% kernels, average

34

30

7

Hamburger bun

61

30

9

Kaiser roll

73

30

12

Pumpernickel bread

56

30

7

50% cracked wheat kernel bread

58

30

12

White wheat flour bread

71

30

10

Wonder bread, average

73

30

10

Whole wheat bread, average

71

30

9

100% Whole Grain bread (Natural Ovens)

51

30

7

Pita bread, white

68

30

10

Corn tortilla

52

50

12

Wheat tortilla

30

50

8

BEVERAGES

Coca Cola, average

63

250 mL

16

Fanta, orange soft drink

68

250 mL

23

Lucozade, original (sparkling glucose drink)

95±10

250 mL

40

Apple juice, unsweetened, average

44

250 mL

30

Cranberry juice cocktail (Ocean Spray

68

250 mL

24

Gatorade

78

250 mL

12

Orange juice, unsweetened

50

250 mL

12

Tomato juice, canned

38

250 mL

4

BREAKFAST CEREALS AND RELATED PRODUCTS

All-Bran, average

55

30

12

Coco Pops, average

77

30

20

Cornflakes, average

93

30

23

Cream of Wheat (Nabisco)

66

250

17

Cream of Wheat, Instant (Nabisco)

74

250

22

Grape nuts, average

75

30

16

Muesli, average

66

30

16

Oatmeal, average

55

250

13

Instant oatmeal, average

83

250

30

Puffed wheat, average

80

30

17

Raisin Bran (Kellogg's)

61

30

12

Special K (Kellogg's)

69

30

14

GRAINS

Pearled barley, average

28

150

12

Sweet corn on the cob, average

60

150

20

Couscous, average

65

150

9

Quinoa

53

150

13

White rice, average

89

150

43

Quick cooking white basmati

67

150

28

Brown rice, average

50

150

16

Converted, white rice (Uncle Ben's)

38

150

14

Whole wheat kernels, average

30

50

11

Bulgur, average

48

150

12

COOKIES AND CRACKERS

Graham crackers

74

25

14

Vanilla wafers

77

25

14

Shortbread

64

25

10

Rice cakes, average

82

25

17

Rye crisps, average

64

25

11

Soda crackers

74

25

12

DAIRY PRODUCTS AND ALTERNATIVES

Ice cream, regular

57

50

6

Ice cream, premium

38

50

3

Milk, full fat

41

250mL

5

Milk, skim

32

250 mL

4

Reduced-fat yogurt with fruit, average

33

200

11

FRUITS

Apple, average

39

120

6

Banana, ripe

62

120

16

Dates, dried

42

60

18

Grapefruit

25

120

3

Grapes, average

59

120

11

Orange, average

40

120

4

Peach, average

42

120

5

Peach, canned in light syrup

40

120

5

Pear, average

38

120

4

Pear, canned in pear juice

43

120

5

Prunes, pitted

29

60

10

Raisins

64

60

28

Watermelon

72

120

4

BEANS AND NUTS

Baked beans, average

40

150

6

Black eye peas, average

33

150

10

Black beans

30

150

7

Chickpeas, average

10

150

3

Chickpeas, canned in brine

38

150

9

Navy beans, average

31

150

9

Kidney beans, average

29

150

7

Lentils, average

29

150

5

Soy beans, average

15

150

1

Cashews, salted

27

50

3

Peanuts, average

7

50

0

PASTA AND NOODLES

Fettucini, average

32

180

15

Macaroni, average

47

180

23

Macaroni and Cheese (Kraft)

64

180

32

Spaghetti, white, boiled, average

46

180

22

Spaghetti, white, boiled 20 min, average

58

180

26

Spaghetti, whole meal, boiled, average

42

180

17

SNACK FOODS

Corn chips, plain, salted, average

42

50

11

Fruit Roll-Ups

99

30

24

M & M's, peanut

33

30

6

Microwave popcorn, plain, average

55

20

6

Potato chips, average

51

50

12

Pretzels, oven-baked

83

30

16

Snickers Bar

51

60

18

VEGETABLES

Green peas, average

51

80

4

Carrots, average

35

80

2

Parsnips

52

80

4

Baked russet potato, average

111

150

33

Boiled white potato, average

82

150

21

Instant mashed potato, average

87

150

17

Sweet potato, average

70

150

22

Yam, average

54

150

20

MISCELLANEOUS

Hummus (chickpea salad dip)

6

30

0

Chicken nuggets, frozen, reheated in microwave oven 5 min

46

100

7

Pizza, plain baked dough, served with parmesan cheese and tomato sauce

80

100

22

Pizza, Super Supreme (Pizza Hut)

36

100

9

Honey, average

61

25

12

Source: [62].


Table 1: List of various foods their glycemic index, serving size and glycemic load per serving.

References

  1. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H (2004) Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27: 1047–53.
  2. Giugliano D, Esposito K (2008) Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases. Curr Opin Lipidol 19: 63–68.
  3. Martinez-Gonzalez MA, de la Fuente-Arrillaga C, Nunez-Cordoba JM, Basterra-Gortari FJ, Beunza JJ, et al. (2008) Adherence to Mediterraneandiet and risk of developing diabetes: Prospective cohort study. BMJ. 336: 1348–51.
  4. Sanchez-Tainta A, Estruch R, Bullo M, Corella D, Gomez-Gracia E, et al. (2008) Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and reduced prevalence ofclustered cardiovascular risk factors in a cohort of 3,204 high-risk patients. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 15: 589–93.
  5. Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Stefanadis C (2005) The epidemiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Greek adults: The ATTICA study. DiabetMed 22: 1581–8.
  6. Geneva: WHO World Health Organization. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications. Part 1. Report ofWHO consultation (1999).
  7. Report of the WHO consultation on obesity. Geneva: WHO; 1998. Prevention and Management of the Global Epidemic of Obesity.
  8. Otuyelu F (1982) Diabetic diet for the Nigerian. Niger Med Pract 3: 48–51.
  9. Fadupin GT, Keshinro OO (2001) Factors influencincing dietary compliance and glycaemic control in adult diabetic patients in Nigeria. Diabetes Int 11: 59–61.
  10. Fadupin GT, Keshinro OO, Sule ON (2000) Dietary recommendations: Example of advice given to diabetic patients in Nigeria. Diabetes Int 10: 68–70.
  11. Sofi F, Innocenti G, Dini C, Masi L, Battistini NC, et al. (2006) Low adherence of a clinically healthy Italian population to nutritionalrecommendations for primary prevention of chronic diseases. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16: 436–44.
  12. Kastorini CM, Panagiotakos DB (2010) Mediterranean diet and diabetes prevention: Myth or fact? World J Diabetes 1: 65–7.
  13. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Rotnitzky A, Manson JE (1995) Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Ann Intern Med 122: 481–6.
  14. Feskins EJ, van Dam RM (1999) Dietary fat and the etiology of type 2 diabetes: An epidemiological perspective. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 9: 87–95.
  15. Bergnman RN, Ader L (2001) Free fatty acids and the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Trends Endocrinol Metab 3: S11–9.
  16. Osagie AU, Omoregie ES (2008) Glycemic indices and glycemic load of some Nigerian Foods. Pakistan J Nutr 7: 710-716.
  17. Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Shaw J (2001) Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature 414: 782-787.
  18. Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, et al. (2001) lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 345: 790–797.
  19. Manson JE, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, et al. (2000) A prospective study of whole-grain intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in US women. Am J Public Health 90: 1409–1415.
  20. Cullmann M, Hilding A, Östenson CG (2012) Alcohol consumption and risk of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes development in a Swedish population. Diabet Med 29: 441–452.
  21. Belkina AC, Denis GV (2010) Obesity genes and insulin resistance. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 17: 472–477.
  22. World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Obesity and overweight fact sheet. Department of Sustainable Development and Healthy Environments.
  23. Walley AJ, Blakemore AI, Froguel P (2006) Genetics of obesity and the prediction of risk for health. Hum Mol Genet 15: R124–R130.
  24. Pamidi S, Tasali E (2012) Obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes: is there a link? Front Neurol 3: 126.
  25. Ioja S, Weir ID, Rennert NJ (2012) Relationship between sleep disorders and the risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Postgrad Med 124: 119–129.
  26. Lindberg E, Theorell-Haglöw J, Svensson M, et al. (2012) Sleep apnea and glucose metabolism: a long-term follow-up in a community-based sample. Chest 142: 935–942.
  27. Einhorn D, Stewart DA, Erman MK, et al. (2007) Prevalence of sleep apnea in a population of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract 13: 355–362.
  28. Schober AK, Neurath MF, Harsch IA (2011) Prevalence of sleep apnoea in diabeticpatients. Clin Respir J 5: 165–172.
  29. Liu S, Manson JE, Ajani UA, et al. (2000) A prospective study of cigarette smoking and the incidence of diabetes mellitus among US male physicians. Am J Med 109: 538–542.
  30. Hu FB, van Dam RM, Liu S (2001) Diet and risk of type II diabetes: the role of types of fat and carbohydrate. Diabetologia 44: 805–817.
  31. van Dam RM, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. (2002) Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes care 25: 417–424.
  32. Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, et al. (2004) Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type II diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA 292: 927–934.
  33. Dhingra R, Sullivan L, Jacques PF, et al. (2007) Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardio-metabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle- aged adults in the community. Circulation116: 480–488.
  34. Duffey KJ, Popkin BM (2006) Adults with healthier dietary patterns have healthier beverage patterns. J Nutr 136: 2901–2907.
  35. Chaturvedi N (2007) The burden of diabetes and its complications: Trends and implications for intervention. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 76: S3–S12.
  36. Vigersky RA (2011) An overview of management issues in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Sci Technol 5: 245–250.
  37. Zatalia SR, Sanusi H (2013) The role of antioxidants in the pathophysiology, complications, and management of diabetes mellitus. Acta Med Indones 45: 141–147.
  38. Fong DS, Aiello L, Gardner TW, et al. (2004) Retinopathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care 27: S84–87.
  39. Elwing JE, Gao F, Davidson NO, et al. (2006) Type 2 diabetes mellitus: the impact on colorectal adenoma risk in women. Am J Gastroenterol 101: 1866–1871.
  40. Donadon V, Balbi M, Casarin P, et al. (2008) Association between hepatocellular carcinoma and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Italy: potential role of insulin. World J Gastroenterol 14: 5695–5700.
  41. Larsson SC, Wolk A (2011) Diabetes mellitus and incidence of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Diabetologia 54: 1013–1018.
  42. Giovannucci E, Harlan DM, Archer MC, et al. (2010) Diabetes and cancer: a consensus report. CA Cancer J Clin 60: 207–221.
  43. Schoen RE, Weissfeld JL, Kuller LH, et al. (2005) Insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin are associated with the presence and advancement of adenomatous polyps. Gastroenterology 129: 464–475.
  44. Tran TT, Naigamwalla D, Oprescu AI, et al. (2006) Hyperinsulinemia, but not other factors associated with insulin resistance, acutely enhances colorectal epithelial proliferation in vivo. Endocrinology 147: 1830–1837.
  45. Sandhu MS, Dunger DB, Giovannucci EL (2002) Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding proteins, their biologic interactions, and colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 94: 972–980.
  46. Wu X, Zhao H, Do KA, et al. (2004) Serum levels of insulin growth factor (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein predict risk of second primary tumors in patients with head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res 10: 3988–3995.
  47. Yu H, Spitz MR, Mistry J, et al. (1999) Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and lung cancer risk: a case-control analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 91: 151–156.
  48. Wolever TMS, Jenkins DJA, Jenkins A, Josse RG (1991) The glycemic index: Methodology and Clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 54: 846-854.
  49. Jenkins AL (2007) The glycemic index: Looking back 25 years. Cereal Foods World 52: 50-53.
  50. Wolever TMS, Katzman-Relle L, Jenkins AL, Vuksan V, Josse RG, et al. (1994) Glycaemic index of 102 complex carbohydrate foods in patients with diabetes. Nutr Res 4: 651-669.
  51. Dona AC, Guilhem P, Robert GG, Philip WK (2010) Digestion of starch: In vivo and in vitro kinetic models used to characterize oligosaccharide or glucose release. Carbohydrate Polym 80: 599-617.
  52. Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Golden JK, Pittas AG, Fuss PJ, et al. (2007) Long-term effects of 2 energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition, and metabolism in CALERIE: A 1-y randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 85: 1023-1030.
  53. Gabriele R, Angela AR, Rosalba G (2008) Role of glycemic index and glycemic load in the healthy state, in prediabetes, and in diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 87: 269S-74S.
  54. Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y, Bjorck I (1992) Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour. Eur J Clin Nutr 46: 561-565.
  55. Bahado-Singh PS, Riley CK, Wheatley AO, Lowe HIC (2011) Relationship between processing method and the glycemic indices of ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly consumed in Jamaica. J Nutr and
  56. Urooj A, Puttraj S (1999) Digestibility index and factors affecting rate of starch digestion in vitro in conventional food preparation. Starch/Staerke 51: 430-435.
  57. Sajilata MG, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR (2006) Resistant starch - A review. Comp Rev in Food Sci and Food Saf 5: 1-17.
  58. Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH (1992) Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr 46: S33-S50.
  59. Erik EJGA, Itziar A, Arne AJ, Alfredo M, et al. (2011) Starches, Sugars and Obesity. Nutrients 3: 341-369.
  60. Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K, Brand-Miller JC (2008) International Tables of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Values. Diab Care: 31.

Citation: Chuwa C, Sharma B, Mwita MA, Gwandu FB, Waibe JM (2021) Low Glycemic Index Foods: A Resolution to Ameliorate Type 2 Diabetes. J Diabetes Treat 6: 1087. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29011/2574-7568.001087

free instagram followers instagram takipçi hilesi