Current Trends in Oceanography and Marine Sciences

Article / review article

"A Review on Taxonomy of Lakshadweep Sponges and its Checklist"

Dil Baseer Sabith KK, PM Mohan*

Department of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Pondicherry University Off Campus, Brookshabad, India

*Corresponding author: Mohan PM, Department of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology, Pondicherry University Off Campus, Brookshabad - 744112, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

Received Date: 09 April, 2021; Accepted Date: 19 April, 2021; Published Date: 23 April, 2021


Introduction

Sponge is one of the oldest group of multicellular animal found on the earth [1]. They are one of the highly diverse and successful group of marine benthic communities around the world [2]. Sponge is one of the dominnent associated species in coral reef ecosystem [3] and they help to bind the live corals to the reef frames, also helps to regeneration of broken reefs, sheltering microbial symbionts of nitrifying and photosynthesizing acivities and protecting from erosion processes [4-6].

The spongiology in India started with freshwater sponges by Carter [7-9] and followed by Bowerbank [10] with marine sponges. Even though India has rich history of sponge studies, from the Lakshadweep Island group, studies are very meagre. Burton [11] studied off Kilten Island sponges and latter Thomas [12-19] studied the Lakshadweep Islands sponges in detail. These studies reported 91 species of sponges from 10 islands of this location. The next detailed study was carried out by George et al. [20] after three decades. The studies after Thomas [19], most of the work of these Islands were sponge metabolites and associated microbial studies along with that few distribution studies as an extension of the earlier studies were reported. Feby and Nair [21] studied sponge associated Dysidea granulosa Bergquist, 1965 and Sigmadocia (Haliclona) fibulata Schmidt, 1862 bacterial distribution in the Kavaratti Island. Gopi and Ajithkumar [22] reported 21 species of sponges from Agatti Island, of which 19, were new report. Prabhakaran et al., [23] reported 22 species of sponges from seagrass meadows of Minicoy Island and Rocktim et al., [24] reported a new record of sponges from Bangaram and Thinnakara island.

Since, the long gap in the studies of the sponges of Lakshadweep Islands and its inconsistency in terminology makes a perplexing situation for the upcoming researchers. This may be due to not available of updates checklist, some species name change because of the revised classification of sponges by Morrow and Cárdenas [25] as well as differences of opinion are available on about the number of sponge species recorded from Lakshadweep offshore regions. An attempt was initiated to compile the literature on sponge species and its distribution for Lakshdweep Islands waters and prepared a checklist to update the sponge taxonomy status in these Islands.

Materials and Methods

The existing published literatures were compiled and extracted the status of sponge studies in the waters of Lakshadweep Islands marine environments. The collected results were interpreted and brought out as a checklist of sponges of Lakshadweep. The taxon identified in these texts were verified with World Porifera Data Base [26] and the World Register of Marine Species [27]. The taxonomy of the reported taxon was updated based on the revised porifera classification proposed by Morrow and Cardenas [25].

Results

As on date 19 sponges related papers were published relating to Lakshadweep Islands marine environments. The published report suggested that 145 taxon of sponges belongs to 86 Genera, 49 Family and 18 Orders among 5 Subclasses and 3 Classes reported from Lakshadweep Islands. Among the 145 taxon 126 identified up to the species level and remaining 19 were identified only up to genus level. Out of 19 sponge related papers, only 6 were taxonomy paper [11,12,14-17], 6 were associated microbial and metabolites studies of sponges [28-32,21], 4 were distribution studies [18,19,22,23], along with one catalogue [13], one checklist paper [20] and a short communication by Rocktim et al., [24].

Discussion

Off the cost of Kiltan Island, the first sponge report from Lakshadweep islands was made [11]. This sponge species were the collections of R.I.M.S. “Investigator” expedition. After that, it took about 40 years to get an attention to the sponge fauna of these Island ecosystems by Thomas [12]. This work was a Ph.D. thesis and it’s an unpublished data. However, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institutes (CMFRI) reference sponge specimens catalogue mentioned only 10 species from Lakshadweep, which was published by Thomas [13]. A subsequent study by Thomas [19] mentioned that 11 sponge species were identified from the Minicoy Island of Lakshadweep. So, the 11th specimen mentioned by Thomas [12,19] was not clear from these literatures.

Subsequently, a series of publications from Thomas [14-17] described about 41 species of sponges exclusively from Minicoy Islands of Lakshadweep. Among the 41 species, 3 identified up to genus and 20 species are remaining in the same name as he mentioned, and the rest of the 18 species have got synonym or transferred to new names.

The sponge availability from different Islands of Lakshadweep other than Kiltan and Minicoy was established by Thomas [18]. This article has not a systematic paper, but he reported distribution and diversity of boring sponges from nine islands of Lakshadweep, namely- Kavaratti, Kalpeni, Suhali, Androth, Minicoy, Amini, Kiltan, Agatti and Kadmat. A total of 18 boring sponges from 9 different genus (Rhabdermia, amorphinopsis, Aka, Cliona, Spirastrella, Thoosa, Jaspis, Halina, Samus) were identified and 6 sponges like Cliona celata, Cliona ensifera, Cliona mucurnata, Cliona vastifica, Spirastrella inconstans and Spirastrella cuspidifera are mentioning for its abundance in different Islands of Lakshadweep.

The most acknowledged research article on the sponge of Lakshadweep was published by Thomas [19] with a compiled report of 91 sponges from 10 islands of Lakshadweep, including his previous studies from these Islands. But this paper has not provided any detailed systematic account of the sponge species for these 91 sponges. At present, 44 species Out of 91 sponges mentioned in this paper got their synonym or transferred to new names.

Furthermore, from the 91 sponges of Lakshadweep 8 sponges identified only up to genus level, namely Myxilla sp, Pseudosuberties sp, Phycopsis sp1, Phycosis sp2, Agelas sp, Bubaris sp, Hippospongia sp, Thorectopsamma sp and 2 got the same name according to the current systematics, i.e, Aka laccadivensis and Damirrina laccadivensis are accepted as Zyzzya fuliginosa. This is the reason in many papers, a number of the sponge species available from these Islands became 82. While going through the distribution table of Thomas [19] suggested that distributional data of 2 sponge species are missing, i.e. the species Ecionemia acervus and Thoosa armata. The species described as Tedani anhelan have an unrecognized author, which was repeated in all other publications of Thomas too.

Parameswaran et al., [28] studied secondary metabolites of the species Ircinia ramose (Keller), collected from Bangaram Islands. The work done by Feby and Nair [21] on associated bacterial studies from Dysidea granulosa Bergquist, 1965 and Sigmadocia (Haliclona) fibulata Schmidt, 1862, of Kavaratti Island. Above these articles doesn’t mention that the species Ircinia ramose (Keller) and Dysidea granulosa Bergquist, 1965 were a new report to Lakshadweep.

The work done by Gopi and Ajithkumar [22] from Agatti Island, suggested that they identified 21 species, of which 14 species were new to Agatti Island and 3 were identified only to genus level and remaining 4 species were reported by Thomas [19]. Furthermore, from their identification, 12 specimens mentioned the species name with wrong author or year. This information leads to confusion among the researchers on sponges. The lists of the Species mention with a wrong author name or year are mentioned in the Table 2:

Prabhakar et al. [23] reported 22 species of sponges from the seagrass associated environment of Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep. Among them, 16 was identified to species level and the remaining 6 identified only to genus level. Of the 16 species, 5 species, namely, Haliclona pigmentifera, Gelliodes cellaria, Trcinia comana, Sypha ciliata and Xenospongia sp. were not reported from Lakshadweep Island before this study and three more species, namely, Haliclona tenrmosa, Rhavdastrella globostella and Tethya diploderma were the first report of Minicoy Island. However, the detailed taxonomy was not presented for the above species mentioned in this article. Gopi and Ajithkumar [22] and Prabhakar et al. [23] reported four species of calcareous sponges Pericharax heteroraphis (Poléjaeff, 1883), Leucetta chagosensis (Dendy, 1913), Clathrina sp., and Sycon ciliatum (Fabricius, 1780). However, they did not mention any description of this species. But, latter the species Leucetta chagosensis (Dendy, 1913) was described by van Soest and de Voogd [33] from Minicoy and Kavarati Islands.

A recent short communication of Rocktim et al., [24] reported coral killing sponges outbreak, Terpios hoshinota (Rützler and Muzik, 1993) from Bangaram and Thinnakara Islands, which was also a first report of the Lakshadweep Islands.

George et al. [20] reported 101 species of sponges from the Indian nearshore waters. Among them, 38 sponges were reported from Lakshadweep Islands. Out of reported species from Lakshadweep 24 species were first reports. However, the cursory analysis of data in this article suggested that, 25 species were new to Lakshadweep Island, 6 species were reported in previous works of these Islands and the remaining 3 species were identified up to genus and the last 4 species are aff. species.

Conclusion

This study concluded that, a total of 145 species of sponges is recorded in 19 published papers from Lakshadweep Islands. Except Hexactinellida all the three remaining Classes are recorded from these Islands. Demosponges has the most predominant Class followed by 4 records of Calcarea from these locations and a single record off Class Homoscleromorpha was observed. The major contributions of these records were contributed by Thomas. It is interesting to note that every author got one or more new records from these islands proves that the diversity of the sponges in this location are enormous and the detailed and intensive study is needed to reveal the sponge diversity of these Islands.

Acknowledgement

The authors thank Head, Department of Ocean Studies and Marine Biology and authorities of Pondicherry University for providing the facilities. The author KKDBS thank the Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA), New Delhi for the award of NFST fellowship.


Sl. No.

ACCEPTED NAME

Synonymous representation from Lakshadweep papers.

Recorded Locations

REFERENCE

 

Class: Demospongiae 

Subclass: Heteroscleromorpha

Order: Tetractinellida

Suborder: Astrophorina

 

 

 

 

 

Family: Theonellidae

 

 

 

1.

Theonella cupola (Burton, 1928)

 

KLT & MCY

Burton (1928) [11]; Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Ancorinidae

 

 

 

2.

Jaspis penetrans (Carter, 1880)

 

SUH & KPL

Thomas (1989) [19]

3.

Jaspis diastra (Vacelet & Vasseur, 1965)

Zaplethea digonoxea spp. diastra (Vacelet & Vasseur, 1965)

SUH

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

4.

Ecionemia acervus (Bowerbank, 1862)

 

MCY & AGT

Thomas (1969, 1980, 1989) [13,16,19]; Gopi and Ajith Kumar (2012) [22]

5.

Ecionemia thielei (Thomas, 1986)

 

MCY & KDM

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

6.

Rhabdastrella rowi (Dendy, 1916)

Aurora rowi (Dendy, 1916)

AMN

Thomas (1989) [19]

7.

Rhabdastrella globostellata (Carter, 1883)

Aurora globostellata (Carter, 1883)

SUH & MCY

Thomas (1989) [19];  Parbhakar et al., (2013) [23]

8.

Stelletta tethyopsis (Carter, 1880)

 

KVT

Thomas (1989) [19]

9.

Stelletta sp

 

AGT

Gopi and Ajith kumar (2012) [22]

10.

Asteropus simplex (Carter 1879)

Stellettinopsis simplex (Carter 1879)

MCY

Thomas (1969a) [13]

11.

Dercitus (Stoeba) plicatus (Schmidt, 1868)

Halina plicata (Schmidt, 1868)

KVT, SUH, KLP, MCY, KDM & AMN

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Geodiidae

 

 

 

 

12.

Geodia lindgreni (Lendenfeld, 1903)

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16.19]

 

Suborder: Spirophorina

 

 

 

 

 

Family: Tetillidae

 

 

 

 

13.

Cinachyrella cavernosa (Lamarck, 1815)

Cynachyra cavernosa (Lamarck, 1815)

KVT

Thomas (1989) [19]

14.

Paratetilla bacca (Selenka, 1867)

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16.19]

 

Family: Samidae

 

 

 

15.

Samus anonymus (Gray, 1867)

 

KVT, SUH, KPL, AND, MCY, KDM

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Thoosidae

 

 

 

16.

Thoosa armata (Topsent, 1888)

 

----NA---

Thomas (1989)

[19]

 

Order: Haplosclerida

Family: Chalinidae

 

 

 

17.

Haliclona (Gellius) fibulata (Schmidt, 1862)

Sigmadocia fibulata (Schmidt, 1862)

MCY, KVT, SUH, MCY, AND, KLP, KPT & AGT.

Thomas (1979, 1989) [15,19]; Parbhakar et al., (2013) [23]; Feby and Nair (2010) [21]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]

18.

Haliclona (Gellius) cellaria (Rao, 1941)

Gelliodes cellaria

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

19.

Haliclona (Gellius) aff. Cymaeformis (nov) George et al., 2020

 

MCY,AGT & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

20.

Haliclona (Haliclona) oculata (Linnaeus, 1759)

Haliclona oculata (Linnaeus, 1759)

KLP

Thomas (1989) [19]

21.

Haliclona tenuiramosa (Burton, 1930)

 

KLP & MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]; Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

22.

Haliclona pigmentifera (Dandy, 1905)

Haliclona pigmentifera

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [21]

23.

Chalinula nematifera (de Laubenfels, 1954)

Haliclona nematifera Grant, 1836 but actullay Haliclona nematifera (De Laubenfels, 1954)

AGT

Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [23]

 

Family: Petrosiidae

 

 

 

24.

Neopetrosia chaliniformis (Thiele, 1899)

Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900)

KVT

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Niphatidae

 

 

 

25.

Gelliodes fibulata (Carter, 1881)

Gelliodes fibulata sensu (Ridley,1884)

KVT

Thomas (1989) [19]

26.

Gelliodes pumila (Lendenfeld, 1887)

Sigmadocia pumila (Lendenfeld, 1887)

MCY

Thomas, (1979, 1989)  [15,19]

 

Family: Phloeodictyidae

 

 

 

27.

Oceanapia sagittaria (Sollas, 1902)

Orina sagittaria (Sollas, 1902)

KVT

Thomas (1989) [19]

28.

Siphonodictyon minutum (Thomas, 1972)

Aka minuta (Thomas, 1972)

KVT, SUH, KPL, AND, MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Callyspongiidae

 

 

 

29.

Callyspongia (Cladochalina) diffusa (Ridley, 1884)

Callyspongia diffusa (Ridley, 1884)

MCY

Thomas (1979,  1989) [15,19]

30.

Callyspongia (Cladochalina) fibrosa (Ridley & Dendy, 1886)

Callyspongia fibrosa (Ridley & Dendy, 1886)

AND,MCY & AMN

Thomas (1989) [19]

31.

Callyspongia (Callyspongia) tubulosa (Linnaeus, 1759)

Callyspongia tubulosa (de Laubenfels, 1936)

AGT

Gopi and Ajithkumar, (2012) [22]

32.

Callyspongia (Euplacella) retiarmata comb (nov) George et al., 2020

 

MCY,KDM, AGT & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

33.

Callyspongia (Euplacella) mannaarensis comb (nov) George et al., 2020

 

MCY

George et al. (2020) [20]

34.

Callyspongia crassifibra (Dendy, 1889)

 

KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

35.

Callyspongia sp

 

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

 

Order: Poecilosclerida

Family: Iotrochotidae

 

 

 

35.

Iotrochota baculifera (Ridley, 1884)

 

KVT & KLP

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Isodictyidae

 

 

 

36.

Coelocarteria singaporensis (Carter, 1883)

Cornulum vesiculatum (Dendy, 1905)

KLP

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Acarnidae

 

 

 

37.

Zyzzya fuliginosa (Carter, 1879)

Damirina laccadivensis (Thomas, 1989) and Aka laccadivensis (Thomas 1989)

KLP & MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

38.

Acarnus souriei (Lévi, 1952)

Acanthacarnus souriei (Lévi, 1952)

KVT & KLP

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Coelosphaeridae

 

 

 

39.

Lissodendoryx (Waldoschmittia) schmidti (Ridley, 1884)

Damiriana schmidti (Ridley, 1884)

KVT, SHU, KLP, MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

 

Family: Myxillidae

 

 

 

40.

Myxilla (Ectyomyxilla) arenaria (Dendy, 1905)

Myxilla arenaria (Dendy, 1905)

KLP

Thomas (1989) [19]

41.

Myxilla sp.

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

 

Family: Tedaniidae

 

 

 

42.

Tedania (Tedania) anhelans (Vio in Olivi, 1792)

Tedania anhelans (lieberakuhn ?)

KVT, SUH, KPL, AND, MCY, KDM, & AMN

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

 

Family: Microcionidae

Subfamily: Ophlitaspongiinae

 

 

 

43.

Antho (Plocamia) manaarensis (Carter, 1880)

Plocamilla manaarensis (Carter, 1880)

MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

44.

Echinoclathria rimosa (Ridley, 1884)

Ophlitaspongia rimosa (Ridley, 1884)

AGT

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Subfamily: Microcioninae

 

 

 

45.

Clathria (Microciona) aceratoobtusa (Carter, 1887)

Microciona aceratoobtusa (Carter, 1887)

KVT & SUH

Thomas (1989) [19]

46.

Clathria (Microciona) rhopalophora (Hentschel, 1912)

Microciona rhopalophora (Hentschel, 1912)

SUH

Thomas (1989) [19]

47.

Clathria (Thalysias) reinwardti (Vosmaer, 1880)

Clathria reinwardti (Vosmaer, 1880)

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

48.

Clathria (Thalysias) procera (Ridley, 1884)

Clathira procera (Schmidt, 1862)

AGT

Gopi and Ajithkumar, (2012) [22]

49.

Clathria (Thalysias) vulpina (Lamarck, 1814)

Clathria procera

KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

50.

Clathria (Clathria) indica (Dendy, 1889)

 

KDM & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

51.

Clathira spp.

 

AGT

Gopi and Ajithkumar, (2012) [22]

 

Family: Mycalidae

 

 

 

52.

Mycale grandis (Gray, 1867)

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

53.

Mycale (Zygomycale) parishii (Bowerbank, 1875)

Zygomycale parishii (Bowerbank, 1875)

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]; George et al. (2020)  [20]

 

Order: Clionaida

Family: Spirastrellidae

 

 

 

54.

Spirastrella coccinea (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864)

 

KVT, AND & MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Clionaidae

 

 

 

55.

Cervicornia cuspidifera (Lamarck, 1815)

Spirastrella cuspidifera (Lamarck, 1815)

SUH & MCY

Thomas (1969,1980, 1989) [13,16,19]

56.

Cervicornia inconstans comb (nov) George et al., 2020

 

AGT

George et al. (2020) [20]

57.

Spheciospongia inconstans (Dendy, 1887)

Spirastrella inconstans (Dendy, 1887)

KVT, SUH, MCY, AND, AMN, KLT, AGT, KLP & KDM

Thomas (1969,1980, 1989) [13,1619]; Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

58.

Spheciospongia vagabunda (Ridley, 1884)

 

MCY,KDM & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

59.

Spheciospongia sp.

 

AGT, KDM & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

60.

Cliothosa aurivillii (Lindgren, 1897)

Spirastrella aurivillii (Lindgren, 1897)

SUH, KPL, AND &AMN

Thomas (1989) [19]

61.

Cliona celata (Grant, 1826)

 

KVT, SUH, MCY,AND, AMN, AGT & KLP

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]

62.

Cliona viridis (Schmidt, 1862)

 

KVT, KPL

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

63.

Cliona ensifera (Sollas, 1878)

 

KVT, SUH, KLP, AND, MCY & KDM

Thomas (1989) [19]

64.

Cliona mucronata (Sollas, 1878)

 

SUH,AND & MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

65.

Cliona sp

 

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

66.

Pione vastifica (Hancock, 1849)

Cliona vastifica (Hancock, 1849)

KVT,SUH & KLP

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

67.

Pione carpenteri (Hancock, 1867)

Cliona carpenteri (Hancock, 1867)

KVT, SUH, KPL, AND MCY & KDM

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Placospongiidae

 

 

 

68.

Placospongia carinata (Bowerbank, 1858)

 

MCY

Thomas (1969, 198a, 1989) [13,16,19]

 

Order: Suberitida

Family: Halichondriidae

 

 

 

69.

Halichondria (Halichondria) panicea (Pallas, 1766)

Halichondria panacea (Pallas 1766)

KLP

Thomas (1989) [19]

70.

Halichondria sp

 

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

71.

Amorphinopsis excavans (Carter, 1887)

 

KVT, SUH, KLP, AND, MCY & KDM

Thomas (1989) [19], Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [23]

72.

Amorphinopsis foetida (Dendy, 1889)

Prostylissa foetida (Dendy, 1889)

MCY

Thomas (1969, 1980, 1989) [13,16,19]

73.

Ciocalypta polymastia (Lendenfeld, 1888)

 

MCY

Thomas (1973, 1980, 1989) [14,16,19]

74.

Ciocalypta digitata (Dendy,1905)

 

KDM

George et al. (2020) [20]

75.

Spongosorites topsenti (Dendy, 1905)

 

KVT.

George et al. (2020) [20]

 

Family: Suberitidae

 

 

 

76.

Suberites carnosus (Johnston, 1842)

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

77.

Suberites sp

 

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

78.

Terpios cruciatus (Dendy, 1905)

Laxosuberites cruciatus (Dendy, 1905)

MCY, SUH, KDM, AGT & KVT.

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]; George et al. (2020) [20]

79.

Psedosuberites sp.

 

KPL & MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

80.

Aaptos aaptos (Schmidt, 1864)

 

MCY

Thomas (1969,1980, 1989) [13,16,19]

81.

Terpios hoshinota (Rützler & Muzik, 1993)

 

BNG, TNK

Rocktim et al. (2019) [24]

 

Order: Bubarida

Family: Bubaridae

 

 

 

82.

Bubaris sp.

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

 

Family: Dictyonellidae

 

 

 

83.

Acanthella cavernosa (Dendy, 1922)

 

MCY

Thomas (1969,1980, 1989) [13,16,19]

 

Family: Desmanthidae

 

 

 

84.

Desmanthus rhabdophorus (Hentschel, 1912)

Lophacanthus rhabdophorus (Hentschel, 1912)

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

 

Order: Tethyida

Family: Timeidae

 

 

 

85.

Timea stellivarians (Carter, 1880)

 

MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

86.

Timea stellata (Bowerbank, 1866)

 

AMN

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Tethyidae

 

 

 

87.

Tethya robusta (Bowerbank, 1873)

 

SUH, MCY, KDM

Thomas (1969, 1980, 1989) [13,16,19]

89.

Tethya japonica (Sollas, 1888)

 

MCY & KDM

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

90.

Tethya diploderma (Schmidt, 1870) 

 

SUH & MCY

Thomas (1989) [19] Parbhakar et al., (2013) [23]

91.

Stellitethya repens (Schmidt, 1870)

Tethytimea repens (Schmidt, 1870)

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

92.

Xenospongia sp.,

 

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

 

Order: Biemnida

Family: Rhabderemiidae

 

 

 

93.

Rhabderemia prolifera (Annandale, 1915)

 

KVT, SHU, KLP, AND & MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Biemnidae

 

 

 

94.

Biemna fortis (Topsent, 1897)

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

95.

Biemna ehrenbergi (Keller,1889)

 

KDM,AGT & KVT

 

George et al. (2020) [20]

96.

Sigmaxinella flabellate (Carter, 1885)

Sigmaxinella flabellata (Dendy, 1867)

AGT

Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]

 

Order: Agelasida

Family: Agelasidae

 

 

 

 

97.

Agelas mauritiana (Carter, 1883)

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

98.

Agelas ceylonica (Dendy, 1905)

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]

99.

Agelas sp.

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989)  [16,19]

 

Order: Axinellida

Family: Raspailiidae

Subfamily: Echinodictyinae

 

 

 

100.

Echinodictyum longistylum (Thomas, 1968)

 

MCY

Thomas (1980, 1989) [16,19]; Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

 

Family: Heteroxyidae

 

 

 

101.

Myrmekioderma granulatum (Esper, 1794)

Myrmekioderma granulate (Esper, 1794)

MCY

Thomas (1969,1980, 1989) [13,16,19]

 

Family: Axinellidae

 

 

 

102.

Axinella donnani (Bowerbank, 1873)

 

KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

103.

Axinella manus (Dendy, 1905)

 

MCY & KDM

George et al. (2020) [20]

104.

Axinella tenuidigitata(Dendy, 1905 )

 

KDM,AGT & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

105.

Dragmacidon agariciforme (Dendy, 1905)

 

MCY

George et al. (2020) [20]

106.

Auletta aurantiaca Dendy, 1889

 

MCY

George et al. (2020) [20]

107.

Phycopsis sp1

 

AGT

Thomas (1989) [19]

108.

Phycopsis sp2

 

MCY

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Order: Scopalinida

Family: Scopalinidae

 

 

 

109.

Stylissa carteri (Dendy,1889)

 

MCY & KDM

George et al. (2020) [20]

110.

Stylissa petrosioides comb (nov) George et al., 2020

 

AGT & KVT.

George et al. (2020) [20]

 

Subclass: Keratosa

Order: Dictyoceratida

Family: Dysideidae

 

 

 

111.

Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1814)

 

KLP, MCY, KLT & AGT

Thomas (1979, 1989) [15,19]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]; Parbhakar et al (2013) [23]

112.

Dysidea granulosa (Bergquist, 1965)

 

KVT & AGT

Feby and Nair (2010) [21]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [23]; George et al. (2020) [20]

113.

Lamellodysidea herbacea (Keller, 1889)

Dysidea herbacea (Keller, 1889)

KLP,MCY,KLT & AGT

Thomas (1979, 1989) [15,19]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]

 

Family: Spongiidae

 

 

 

 

114.

Spongia (Spongia) ceylonensis (Dendy, 1905)

Spongia officinalis var. ceylonensis (Dendy, 1905)

MCY, KVT, SUH,AND, AMN, KLT, AGT, KLP KPT

Thomas (1979, 1989) [15,19]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]; Prabhakr et al. (2013) [23]; George et al. (2020) [20]

115.

Spongia aff. Ceylonensis (nov) George et al., 2020

 

MCY &KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

116.

Spongia (Spongia) sp.

 

KDM

George et al. (2020) [20]

 

117.

Hippiospongia sp.

 

KVT, SUH, KLP, AND, MCY, KDM, AMN, KPT

Thomas (1989)

[19]

118.

Hyattella cribriformis (Hyatt, 1877)

 

KVT, MCY, AMN, KLP & AGT

Thomas (1979, 1989) [15,19]; Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]

119.

Hyattella intestinalis (Lamarck, 1814)

 

KDM

George et al. (2020) [20]

120.

Hyattella aff. Intestinalis (nov) George et al., 2020

 

KDM

George et al. (2020) [20]

121.

Hyattella tubaria Lendenfeld, 1889

 

KDM & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

122.

Hyattella cavernosa (Pallas, 1766)

 

KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

123.

Hyattella aff. cavernosa (nov) George et al., 2020

 

MCY & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

 

Family: Thorectidae

Subfamily: Thorectinae

 

 

 

124.

Hyrtios erectus (Keller, 1889)

Hyrtios erectus (Keller, 1889)

KLP & AGT

Thomas (1989) [19]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]

125.

Phyllospongia foliascens (Pallas, 1766)

 

SUH,MCY,KLT

Thomas (1979, 1989) [15,19]

126.

Fasciospongia cavernosa (Schmidt, 1862)

 

KLP, AND, KDM, MCY & AMN

Thomas (1989) [19]; Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

127.

Thorectopsamma sp.

 

KLP

Thomas (1989) [19]

128.

Fasciospongia anomala (Dendy, 1905)

 

KDM, AGT & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

129.

Hyrtios reticulatus (Thiele, 1899)

 

MCY,KDM & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

130.

Hyrtios sp.

 

AGT & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

131.

Luffariella herdmani (Dendy, 1905)

 

KDM, AGT & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

 

Subfamily: Phyllospongiinae

 

 

 

132.

Lendenfeldia dendyi (Lendenfeld, 1889)

Phyllospongia dendyi (Lendenfeld, 1889

MCY

Thomas (1973 1979,1989) [14,15,19]

 

Order: Dendroceratida

Family: Darwinellidae

 

 

 

133.

Dendrilla cactos (Selenka, 1867)

 

KVT, SHU, KLP

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Family: Irciniidae

 

 

 

134.

Ircinia ramose (Keller 1889)

 

BNG

Parameswaren et al. (1989) [28]

135.

Ircinia compana (Lamark, 1814)

Ircinia compana

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

136.

Ircinia vallata (Dendy, 1887)

 

MCY, KDM & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

 

Family: Dictyodendrillidae

 

 

 

137.

Spongionella nigra (Dendy 1889)

 

AGT & KVT

George et al. (2020) [20]

 

Subclass: Verongimorpha

Order: Verongiida

Family: Pseudoceratinidae

 

 

 

138.

Pseudoceratina purpurea (Carter, 1880)

Psammaplysilla purpurea (Carter, 1880)

KVT, SUH, MCY,AND, AMN, KDM & AGT

Thomas (1989) [19]; Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]; Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]; George et al. (2020) [20]

 

Family: Ianthellidae

 

 

 

139.

Ianthella flabelliformis (Linnaeus, 1759)

 

AGT

Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]

 

Order: Chondrillida

Family: Chondrillidae

 

 

 

140.

Chondrilla sacciformis (Carter, 1879)

 

SUH

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Class: Homoscleromorpha

Order:Homosclerophorida

Family: Plakinidae

 

 

 

141.

Plakinastrella minor (Dendy, 1916)

Dercitopsis minor (Dendy, 1916)

SUH

Thomas (1989) [19]

 

Class: Calcarea

Subclass: Calcinea

Order: Clathrinida

Family: Leucettidae

 

 

 

142.

Pericharax heteroraphis (Poléjaeff, 1883)

 

AGT

Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]

143.

Leucetta chagosensis (Dendy, 1913)

 

MCY, KDM, AGT & KVT

Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]; Van Soest (2018) [33];  George et al. (2020) [20]

 

Family: Clathrinidae

 

 

 

144.

Clathrina sp.

 

AGT, MCY

Gopi and Ajithkumar (2012) [22]; Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]

 

Subclass: Calcaronea

Order: Leucosolenida

Family: Sycettidae

 

 

 

145.

Sycon ciliatum (Fabricius, 1780)

Scypha ciliata

MCY

Parbhakar et al. (2013) [23]


Location code and Names: MCY- Minicoy, KVT- Kavaratti, AND- Androth, AGT- Agatti, KDM- Kadmat, AMN- Amini, KLT- Kiltan, SUH-Suhali, KPT- Kalpitti, BNG- Bangarum, TNK- Thinnakara.

 Table 1: The List of Sponge reported from Lakshadweep Islands.


Sl.No.

Name Mentioned in the Reviwed Literaure

Accepted Name

1

Callyspongia tubulosa de Laubenfels, 1936

Callyspongia (Callyspongia) tubulosa (Linnaeus, 1759)

2

Clathira procera Schmidt, 1862

Clathria (Thalysias) procera (Ridley, 1884)

3

Dysidea fragilis Gray, 1867

Dysidea fragilis (Montagu, 1814)

4

Dysidea granulosa Gray, 1867

Dysidea granulosa Bergquist, 1965

5

Ecionemia acervus Bowerbank, 1864

Ecionemia acervus Bowerbank, 1862

6

Haliclona nematifera Grant, 1836

Haliclona nematifera (De Laubenfels, 1954)

now accepted as Chalinula nematifera (de Laubenfels, 1954)

7

Hyattella cribriformis Lendenfeld, 1888

Hyattella cribriformis (Hyatt, 1877)

8

Lanthella flabelliformis Schmidt, 1862

Ianthella flabelliformis (Linnaeus, 1759)

9

Leucetta chagosensis Haeckei, 1872

Leucetta chagosensis Dendy, 1913

10

Psammaplysilla purpurea Keller, 1889

Psammaplysilla purpurea (Carter, 1880)

 now accepted as Pseudoceratina purpurea (Carter, 1880)

11

Sigmadosia fibulata de Laubenfels, 1936

Sigmadocia fibulata (Schmidt, 1862)

 accepted as Haliclona (Gellius) fibulata (Schmidt, 1862)

12

Sigmaxinella flabellata Dendy, 1867

Sigmaxinella flabellata (Carter, 1885)


Table 2: Name Mentioned in the Reviwed Literature and Accepted in Database.

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Citation: Sabith DBKK, Mohan PM (2020) A Review on Taxonomy of Lakshadweep Sponges and its Checklist. Curr Trends Oceanogr Mar Sci 4: 114. DOI: 10.29011/CTOMS-114.100014

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