Objectives: The objectives of this work were to define the causes of coccygodynia and to find its correlation and concurrence
with other conditions within the motor system.
Method: The number of participants to be examined was established after the files of 13,793 patients with motor system
conditions, who were treated in Center of Manual Therapy (CTM) in Sierosław (Poland), had been analysed. The participants
were divided into the study group (A) and the control group (B) having 123 subjects each. The study was of a retrospective
nature. The data was obtained from patients’ files and collected in the study protocol, added to a spreadsheet, and finally
submitted for statistical analysis in order to find cause and effect relationship between the coccyx pain and the factors examined.
All patients underwent both examination and therapy according to the approach of the Manual Therapy by Rakowski.
Results: Out of 13,791 participants 621 (4.5%) was suffering from coccygodynia of various origin. Three people had
coccygectomy (0.48%). In the study group (group A) the vast majority of participants (77.24%) were women (p=0.0001).
There were no statistically significant differences in the median age of participants from group A and B (p=0.0589), the mean
body weight of participants from group A was no different than the mean weight of participants from group B (p=0.110570).
People from group A were shorter than people from group B (p=0.0157). The study on BMI in group A and group B didn’t
show any significant differences (p=0.6559). 24.39% of people from group A had coccyx injury. The aching period for these
people wasn’t longer than for people who didn’t injure the coccyx, but reported the pain (p=0.5927). Not a single form of pelvic
floor muscle tone disorders depends on a previously sustained coccyx injury: the excessive pelvic floor muscles resting tone
(p=0.1653), the reduced pelvic floor muscles resting tone (p=0.7222), the pelvic floor muscles efficiency disorder (p=0.4361),
the reverse pelvic floor muscles coordination (p=1). There isn’t a statistically significant relationship in coccyx tenderness
occurrence in the per rectum examination in group A people, who sustained coccyx injury and in people, who didn’t have the
injury: the dorsal mobilization of the coccyx (p=0.1620), the ventral mobilization of the coccyx (p=0.5870), the palpation
tenderness of the coccyx tip (p=0.0644). The more frequent conditions in group A were: sacrum pain (p<0.0001), shoulder
blade region pain (p<0.0013), mid-thoracic spine pain (p<0.0011). The more frequent conditions in group B were: difficulty
to start and continue urination (p<0.0067), L and L/S spine pain (p<0.0168), hip region pain (p<0.025), knee pain (p<0.0128).
Conclusion: (1) The concurrence of coccygodynia and many other motor system conditions was shown. The following were
named as clearly correlated with coccygodynia: sacrum, mid-thoracic spine and shoulder blade region pain. (2) Coccyx injury
is just one of many possible causes of coccygodynia. (3) The idiopathic coccygodynia requires further studies in order to learn
its pathogenesis in detail and to identify a cause-oriented therapy method.
Causes of coccygodynia; Coccygodynia; Conditions which concur with coccygodynia; Manual therapy with regard to coccygodynia