Background and Aim: Vitamin D is involved in multiple metabolic alterations that affect adiposity, glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of global mortality. The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of low levels of vitamin D and Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in our population, and which cardiovascular markers and diseases are related to vitamin D deficiency.
Methods and Results: Descriptive cross-sectional study of patients attending endocrinology consultations at Ramón y Cajal Hospital, from March 2015 to May 2017. A total of 234 patients were included, 49.1% had vitamin D deficiency and 53.8% had MS. Increased waist circumference was the factor with the highest prevalence (61.74%) in individuals with vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml compared to the rest of the groups (p<0.05). The decrease in HDL cholesterol, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance were the cardiovascular markers related to vitamin D deficiency (p <0.05). The CVD associated with low levels of vitamin D were type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (p<0.02), acute myocardial failure (p<0.01) and coronary revascularization (p<0.005). All these conditions were associated with men (p<0.05).
Conclusions: Patients with MS had significantly lower vitamin D values than those without MS. Vitamin D deficiency is related to the development of major cardiovascular events in relation to T2DM pathogenesis, from microvascular alterations to the latter macro vascular processes. The therapeutic and nutritional approach to central obesity, HDL-cholesterol levels and diabetes metabolism markers, with an elevation of vitamin D, would decrease the prevalence of MS and CVD.
Keywords: Prevalence; Vitamin D deficiency; Metabolic syndrome; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Cardiovascular diseases; Cardiovascular markers; Metabolism markers; Waist circumference; HDL cholesterol; Glycated hemoglobin; Insulin resistance; Acute myocardial failure; Coronary revascularization