Journal of Community Medicine & Public Health (ISSN: 2577-2228)

research article

Association of Sociodemographic Characteristics and Lifestyle with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Glycemic Control: A Cross-Sectional Study

Hafiz Ahmed E Mohamed1*, Mohamed Mohei ElDin Makhlouf2, Abduljaleel Abdullatif Zainel3, Sherif Omar Osman2, Nagah Selim4

1Lead Principal Investigator, Occupational Health & Safety Department, Primary Health Care Corporation, Doha, Qatar

2Consultant Trainer of Community Medicine, Primary Health Care Corporation, Doha, Qatar

3Department of Clinical Research, Directorate of Clinical Affairs, Primary Health Care Corporation, Doha, Qatar

4Program Director Community Medicine Residency Program, Consultant Community Medicine, Primary Health Care Corporation, Qatar

*Corresponding author: Hafiz Ahmed E Mohamed, Lead Principal Investigator, Occupational Health & Safety Department, Primary Health Care Corporation, P.O. Box 26555 Doha, Qatar

Received Date: 11 March, 2021; Accepted Date: 22 March, 2021; Published Date: 26 March, 2021

Abstract

Introduction/Aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major global public health problem affecting huge number of the population and Qatar is ranked among the top 10 countries with high diabetes prevalence. Identification of factors associated with poor glycemic control may help in planning for more comprehensive strategy of care, and better quality of life of diabetic patients.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted and included 510 type 2 diabetic patients attending noncommunicable disease clinics at nine primary health care centers in Qatar aiming to explore sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns associated with poor glycemic control among them. A stratified cluster sampling technique with proportional allocation was utilized. HbA1c level >7% was considered as poor control, while HbA1c ≤7% was categorized as good control. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Pre-coded structured interviewing questionnaire, Short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale were utilized. Review of medical records was done to collect the required information.

Results: Most patients were males (61.2%), 71.2% aged 50 years or more with a mean age of 53.4 ± 8.5 years. The majority was non-Qatari (73.3%). Near to half of patients (48.7%) had secondary education and above, and 32.5% were not working or housewives. The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was high; 63.7%. Poor glycemic control was more common among non-smoker patients (65.8%) compared to regular/occasional and ex-smokers (64.5%, 52.2% respectively). Despite a high level of perceived benefits and barriers score of physical activity, very few numbers of the patients were performing physical activity. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived benefits and barriers score of physical activity and each of the days and time of moderate physical activity and those of walking.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was high; around two thirds of the patients, which is nearly comparable to that reported from many countries. There was a significant positive correlation between perceived benefits and barriers score of physical activity and each of the days and time of moderate physical activity and days and time of walking. The study demonstrates that poor glycemic control was found more commonly among some sociodemographic factors, however, none of these relations were found to be statistically significant (p>0.05).

Keywords

Glycemic control; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Sociodemographic; Lifestyle; Primary health care


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