Food & Nutrition Journal (ISSN: 2575-7091)

Article / research article

"Screening of Mango Germplasm against Malformation in West Bengal"

Kalyan Chakraborti1, Sahar Murmu2*, D Rana3, DK Mishra1*, Fatik Kumar Bauri1

 1AICRP on Fruits, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, India

2Survey Selection and Mass Production of Nodule bacteria, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, India

3Department of Plant Pathology, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, India

*Corresponding author: Sahar Murmu, Survey Selection and Mass Production of Nodule bacteria, Directorate of Research , Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur, Nadia-741252, West Bengal, India. Tel: +919732356428; Email: saharmurmu@gmail.com

D K Mishra, AICRP on Fruits, Directorate of Research, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia741235, West Bengal, India. Tel: +917890593195; Email: dkmbckv@gmail.com

Received Date: 19 June, 2017; Accepted Date: 05 July, 2017; Published Date: 11 July, 2017

1.      Abstract

 Utilization of resistant germplasm against any disease is the most effective management practice than any other control aspect. Therefore here 29 mango germplasms were tested against malformation disease showing different susceptibility reaction. Out of which 4 germplasms viz. Kishan Bhog, Bombai, Zardalu, Bombay Green exhibit highly tolerant with expressing extremely low symptoms of floral malformation with PDI range up to 1.00 followed by 9 moderately tolerant (Fazli, Himsagar, Vanraj, Mahmud Bahar, Prabha Sankar, Mankurad, Baneshan, Langra, Fernandin), 11 moderately susceptible (Neelum, Bangalora, Mulgoa, Dashehari, Alphonso, Chousa, Amrapali, Swarna Jehangir, Au Rumani, Neeluddin and Neeleshan), 5 susceptible germplasms (Kesar, Suvarnrekha, Mallika, Neelgoa and Ratna). Result of this study identify Kishan Bhog, Bombai, Zardalu, Bombay Green are promising resistant germplasms against malformation disease.

 2.      Keywords: Germplasm Screening; Malformation; Management; Resistance; Susceptibility

1.      Introduction

 Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a national fruit crop of India. It is susceptible to various biotic and abiotic diseases [1]. Malformation has become a crux amongst biotic diseases of mango. Yield may be reduced by as much as 90% [2]. A physiological race of Fusarium moniliforme var subglutinans (F. mangiferae) [3,4] is a known biotic agent associated with malformation and the disease symptoms manifest on inflorescence (floral malformation), shoots (vegetative malformation) and young seedlings (bunchy top). The mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae Sayed (Eriophyidae), is often observed in high numbers on malformed tree. This association of the mite may be caused hypertrophied buds on mango leading to mango malformation disease [5,6]. Many control measures such as clipping practices, spray of chemicals and growth regulators have been reported to reduce the damage inflicted by malformation. But intensive use of fungicides leads to accumulation of toxic compounds potentially hazardous to humans and environment and also in built up of resistance of the pathogens. Planting of genetically resistant available cultivars are necessary to reduce the damage caused by mango malformation. Therefore, our present investigation was carried out to identify suitable cultivars which will be highly tolerant in Gangetic West Bengal condition.

 2.      Materials and Methods

 The experiment was carried out in mango orchard located at Gayespur in Gangetic West Bengal during the year 2010-12 with 29 mango germplasms of 10 years bearing plants planted in RBD with six replications of each germplasm. Out of 29 mango germplasm, there were 19 commercial mango cultivars and 10 hybrids. Commercial cultivars are Dasherai, Langra, Fazli, Chousa, Baneshan, Bangalora, Mulgoa, Neelum, Suvarnrekha, Alphonso, Kesar, Mankurad, Fernandin, Vanraj, Zardalu, Bombai, Bombay Green, Himsagar, Kishan Bhog and 10 mango hybrids - Swarna Jehangir (Chinnaswarnarekha X Jehangir), Ratna (Neelum X Alphonso), Au Rumani (Rumani X Mulgoa), Maliika (Neelum X Dashehari), Prabha Sankar (Bombai X Kalapadi), Neelgoa (Neelum X Perramulgoa), Neeleshan (Neelum X Baneshan), Neeluddin (Neelum XHimayuddin), Amrapali (Dashehari X Neelum), Mahmud Bahar (Bombai X Kalapadi). Data was recorded against intensity of malformation in all the cultivars during the reproductive stage in peak period of flowering i.e. during spring-summer months (March-May). The host-taxa were classified to 0 to 5 scales based on their response to the pathogen in Table 1 with a modification of susceptibility rating as proposed by Chakraborti, 2010 [7].

3.      Result and Discussion

 Among the germplasms expressively highest percentage of infection was observed in Neelgoa (19.98%) and least in Bombai (0.78%). There were 4 germplasms viz. Kishan Bhog, Bombai, Zardalu, Bombay Green showed highly tolerant with expressing extremely low symptoms of floral malformation with PDI range up to 1.00. There were 9 moderately tolerant germplasm viz. Fazli, Himsagar, Vanraj, Mahmud Bahar, Prabha Sankar, Mankurad, Baneshan, Langra, Fernandin expressing low symptoms of floral malformation. There were 11 moderately susceptible germplasms viz. Neelum, Bangalora, Mulgoa, Dashehari, Alphonso, Chousa, Amrapali, Swarna Jehangir, Au Rumani, Neeluddin and Neeleshan expressing intermediate symptoms of disorder. There were another 5 susceptible germplasms viz. Kesar, Suvarnrekha, Mallika, Neelgoa and Ratna expressing high symptoms of the malady. The maximum hybrids attain the rating scale (score)-3 which signify the intermediate infection or moderately susceptible reaction (PDI range >5.00-15.00%). No germplasm showed either total resistant or highly susceptible one. Three years mean value of reaction (PDI) of the evaluated germplasm are presented in the Table 2 with a comprehensive glance in Table 3.

On an average maximum variety (11 varieties i.e 37.93 %) attain the rating scale (score)-3 which signifies intermediate level of infection or moderately susceptible reaction for tolerance against floral malformation followed by moderately tolerant reaction (9 varieties i.e 31.04%). In this context mention may be made that mango germplasm comprising of forty-three varieties was evaluated by [8] for the level of the panicle malformation disease intensity. Out of tested varieties, 4 (9.3%) were tolerant, 27 (62.79%) were moderately tolerant, and 5 (11.62%) were moderately susceptible while 7 (16.27%) were recorded highly susceptible to malformation.

 4.      Conclusion

 Twenty-nine mango germplasm are evaluated for tolerance against floral malformation during 2010-12 in Gangetic West Bengal. It was recorded that among the varieties Neelgoa is the most susceptible taxon regarding tolerance against this malady and Bombay green is recorded as the most tolerant germplasm which attain the minimum rating scale (scale-1) and signifies very low infection or highly tolerant reaction against floral malformation. Use of a tolerant cultivar is an effective measure for management a disease than chemical control having fungicidal hazardous to humans and environment including soil health and four germplasm (Kishan Bhog, Bombai, Zardalu, Bombay Green) can be suggested to cultivate against this disease due to their high tolerance compare to other germplasm screened.


Scale

Range of panicle infected (per cent)

Symptom expressed

Reaction

0

0.00

No visible symptom

Total resistant/ Immune

1

up to 1.0

Extremely low

Highly tolerant

2

>1.00-5.00

Low

Moderately tolerant

3

>5.00-15.00

Intermediate

Moderately susceptible

4

>15.00-50.00

High

Susceptible

5

More than 50.00

Very High

Highly Susceptible


Table 1: Mango floral malformation susceptibility rating.

 

Sl. No.

Germplasm

Per cent infection

(Overall Mean)

Rating

Scale

Expressed symptom

Rank

1

Dashehari

8.49

3

Moderately susceptible

6

2

Langra

1.45

2

Moderately resistant

23

3

Fazli

3.67

2

Moderately resistant

20

4

Chousa

8.05

3

Moderately susceptible

8

5

Baneshan

1.47

2

Moderately resistant

22

6

Bangalora

5.45

3

Moderately susceptible

13

7

Mulgoa

5.58

3

Moderately susceptible

12

8

Neelum

5.91

3

Moderately susceptible

11

9

Suvarnrekha

16.01

4

Susceptible

5

10

Alphonso

8.17

3

Moderately susceptible

7

11

Kesar

16.36

4

Susceptible

4

12

Mankurad

1.45

2

Moderately resistant

23

13

Fernandin

1.78

2

Moderately resistant

21

14

Vanraj

3.67

2

Moderately resistant

20

15

Zardalu

0.86

1

Highly resistant

25

16

Bombai

0.78

1

Highly resistant

27

17

Bombay Green

0.96

1

Highly resistant

24

18

Himsagar

3.93

2

Moderately resistant

18

19

Kishan Bhog

0.79

1

Highly resistant

26

20

Swarna Jehangir

6.20

3

Moderately susceptible

10

21

Ratna

19.08

4

Susceptible

2

22

Au Rumani

5.29

3

Moderately susceptible

15

23

Mallika

17.19

4

Susceptible

3

24

Prabha Sankar

3.76

2

Moderately resistant

19

25

Neelgoa

19.98

4

Susceptible

1

26

Neeleshan

5.09

3

Moderately susceptible

16

27

Neeluddin

5.42

3

Moderately susceptible

14

28

Amrapali

6.45

3

Moderately susceptible

9

29

Mahmud Bahar

4.16

2

Moderately resistant

17

 

SE (m)

2.12

 

 

 

 

CD (0.05)

5.36

 

 

 


Table 2: Screening of mango germplasm against floral malformation.

 

Score

Score 5

Score 4

Score 3

Score 2

Score 1

Score 0

Reaction

Highly

Susceptible

Susceptible

Moderately

susceptible

Moderately

tolerant

Highly

tolerant

Total

resistant/ Immune

Number of

variety

Nil

5

11

9

4

Nil

Percentage

of the total

0

17.24

37.93

31.04

13.79

0

Name of the

germplasm

Nil

Kesar,

Suvarnrekha,

Mallika, Neelgoa, Ratna

Neelum,

Bangalora,

Mulgoa, Dashehari, Alphonso, Chousa, Amrapali, Swarna Jehangir.

Au Rumani,

Neeluddin, Neeleshan,

Fazli,

Himsagar,

Vanraj, Mahmud Bahar, Prabha Sankar, Mankurad, Baneshan, Langra, Fernandin,

Kishan

Bhog,

Bombai, Zardalu, Bombay Green,

Nil


Table 3: Summary of total number of germplasm in different level against mango floral malformation.

Citation: Chakraborti K, Murmu S, Rana D, Mishra DK, Bauri FK (2017) Screening of Mango Germplasm against Malformation in West Bengal. Food Nutr J 2: 140. DOI: 10.29011/2575-7091.100040

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