Baccaurea sapida Muell. Arg., commonly known as “Burmese grape” is a
flowering plant belonging to the family- Euphorbiaceae. It is one of the
important underutilized fruit crop, as it has remained confined mainly to
backyard plantation and as forest creeper. The plant is native to Southeast
Asian region distributed along the sub-Himalayan tract, mostly from Nepal to
Sikkim, Darjeeling, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Assam, Bhutan, Burma,
Penninsular Malaysia, Tibet and Andaman Islands .
In West Bengal it is mainly grown in Cooch Behar, Jalpaiguri, Darjeeling, Uttar
Dinajpur and Dakshin Dinajpur andalso found in Nadia district to a limited
scale. Locally the fruit is known as ‘Latka’, ‘Latkan’, ‘Lotko’, or ‘Notko’. It
is a mild acidic fruit and mainly used as fresh fruit consumption. It is a slow
growing, evergreen, cauliflory bearing, dioecious, short to medium height,
flowering plant species. It flowers during the summer months (March-April) and
fruits are mature during the rainy season (June-July). The fruit is oval to round
in shape and turns yellow or yellowish brown in ripen condition. The type of
fruit is berry and edible portion is aril which is covered by leathery rind. It
can be propagated by seeds and as it is dioecious in nature so variation is
present among the present plant population. Besides, seedlings rose from seed
need to attain a considerable height before flowering .
Again, the sex (maleness and femaleness) of Burmese grape cannot be detected
before flowering of plants at 4-5 years of planting. Most of the male plants
need to remove after confirmation of sex. This is wastage of money, time and
space of fruit production. Vegetative reproduction could open up a new horizon
for the multiplication of this species for large-scale plantations since the
species is amenable for rooting in juvenile stem cuttings . However, multiplication of the species through
clonal propagation from juvenile materials is unable to avoid the problems of
detecting the male and female trees developed from the juvenile cuttings.
Therefore clonal propagation through mature stem cutting from female trees can
be an important tool for eliminating the problem of female. However, a little
information is available about asexual propagation of Burmese grape. Therefore,
the present investigation was carried out to study the effect of different IBA
concentration on rooting from stem cuttings of B. sapida.
2.1. Preparation of stem cuttings
The experiment was conducted in a
non-mist polyhouse of ICAR-AICRP on Fruit, Mondouri, Bidhan Chandra Krishi
Viswavidyalaya, during monsoon in the year 2016. Healthy
and uniform stem cuttings were obtained from one year old branches of mature
female plant. Cuttings were dipped in fungicide solution for 2-3 minutes and
subsequently washed in distilled water and kept in shade for 10 minutes before
giving hormonal treatment. After that cuttings were briefly dipped in the
hormonal solution and were planted in polythene bag filled with substrate (Sand:
Soil: FYM @ 1:2:1). In this study, there were five levels of IBA treatments (T1- 0.2%, T2-0.4%,
T3-0.6%, T4-0.8% and T6-control)
with four replications and each replication consisted of ten cuttings. The
polybags were then kept in the non-mist polyhouse and watered regularly.
2.2. Observation recorded
Observations were recorded daily
up to 45 days after planting. The observation recorRooting success
It was calculated by using this formula -----
number of cuttings success
X 100 (%)
number of cuttings planted in all replicates Shoot and Root
They were measured with the help
of digital slide caliper and expressed in cm.
2.2.1 Number of roots
The number of root was counted
The percentage of cuttings that
survived was calculated with the following formula----
Total number of survived cuttings
x 100 / Plant survival % age = Total number of sprouted cuttings .
2.3. Experimental design and statistical analysis
The experiment was laid out in
randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Analysis of
variance (one way classified data) for each parameter was performed using op
stat software (online version). The statistical analysis was done by following Randomized
Block Design (RBD) as per Gomez and Gomez .
The significance of different sources of variation was tested by error mean
square by Fischer-Snedecor’s ‘F’ test at probability level of 0.05 percent.
3.1. Rooting success
(Table 1) represent that rooting success of
cutting of Baccurea
sapida Muell ranged from 14.25 to 65.87%. Maximum cutting success
(65.87%) was obtained in T2 followed
by T3 (58.25%) and minimum success
(14.25%) was obtained in T5
treatment. The data on cutting success percentage was statistically significant
under all the treatments. Rooting ability of cuttings of B. sapida was found to increase significantly by
IBA treatment in the present study. However, Nath and Barooah  reported 46.5% rooting when B. sapida (Latkan) cuttings were dipped in 2500,
3000 or 3500 ppm IBA (in 50% ethanol). IBA was more effective than IAA at
stimulating rooting of Latkan with 0.05 mg/litre the optimum concentration . Auxin IBA has a great effect on cutting success.
Better formation of roots in auxin treated cuttings might be due to
accumulation of metabolites at the site of application, synthesis of new
protein, callus formation, cell division and cell enlargement . The response of IBA could be that it is slowly
degraded by the auxin degrading enzyme linked system .
Likewise Weaver  suggested that since IBA
translocates poorly, it is retained near the site of application and is
therefore very effective. The application of IBA might have an indirect
influence by enhancing the speed of transformation and movement of sugar to the
base of cuttings and consequently rooting as mentioned by Torkashvanda and
Shadparvar  in hibiscus. Applied auxin was
known to intensify root-forming process in cuttings. Usually polysaccharide
hydrolysis was activated under the influence of applied IBA, and as a result,
the content of physiologically active sugar increased providing materials and
energy for meristamatic tissues and later for root primordia and roots. Hassig  examined the function of endogenous root forming
components of plants and demonstrated that auxin component was required for
development of callus in which root primordia initiated but for subsequent
premordia development both auxin and non-auxin components are needed. It might
be possible that in cuttings with optimum amount of endogenous auxin content
and increasing of root number reflects the effect of applied auxin .
Number of roots
of roots of cutting of Burmese grape was ranged from 1.53 to 2.83 (Figure 1). Highest number of roots (2.83) was in T2 followed by T3
(2.23). Lowest number of roots (1.53) was obtained in T5. Root number of cuttings of B. sapida was significantly affected by the auxin (Table 1). Similar result was reported by Hossain et al. that mean root number of
cuttings of Swietenia macrophylla and Chickrassia velutina significantly enhanced with
IBA treatment . Increased number of roots in
cuttings treated with auxin had been considered due to enhanced hydrolysis of
nutritional reserves under the influence of auxin. Kamaluddin et al, 
observed that applied auxin significantly increased the root number
of cuttings of C. velutina . Again, Al- Obeed 
reported that the cuttings of guava treated with IBA in combination with
catechol at 500 and 1000 ppm produced highest number of roots (31.1) while the
control produced only 9.1 roots per cutting.
length was ranged from 2.02 cm to 3.24 cm. Highest root length (3.24 cm) was
obtained in T2 and lowest length
(2.02 cm) was obtained in T5. It was
statistically significant under all the treatments. Similar result was reported
by Mathew et al.,  and mentioned that the primary root
number, root length and root dry biomass showed a significant increase due to
chemical treatments over the untreated cuttings. These results also supported
by the findings of the study of Pathak et
al.,  on plum and Avanzato et al., 
Number of shoot
significantly affects the shoot number developed in B.
sapida cuttings (Table 2). However,
maximum number of shoots was developed in cuttings rooted with 0.4% IBA
treatment and the minimum was in cuttings rooted without treatment. The mean
shoot number was varied from 0.55 to 0.94 in B. sapida cuttings. Similar result was
reported by Hossain et al.,  who mentioned that shoots produced by the
cuttings of S. macrophylla and C. velutina was indifferent to IBA treatments.
However, Debata and Pank  reported the
optimum bud break response was obtained with 0.1 mg IAA + 0.5 mg IBA/litre with
85% of explants producing an average of 2.3 shoots /explants in cuttings of
mature Bixa orellana.
(Table 2) represent that survival success of
cutting of Baccurea
sapida Muell ranged from 40.29 to 67.81%. Maximum survival (67.81%)
was obtained in T2 followed by T3 (61.30%) and minimum (40.29%) was obtained in T5 treatment. The data on survival percentage was
statistically significant under all the treatments. However, Nath and Barooah
(1992) recorded that survival of rooted cuttings were 62.3% in B. sapida cuttings treated with IBA.
above discussion provides a suitable protocol of vegetative propagation of
Burmese grape. Finally it can be concluded that IBA@ 0.4% is proved to be the best
in terms of cutting success, growth performance and survival rate of Baccueria sapida.
Field investigation of the rooted cuttings of the species for large scale
clonal multiplication could be an important aspect of future study.