Family Medicine and Primary Care: Open Access (ISSN: 2688-7460)

research article

Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Primary Health Care Centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Turki Alharbi, Abdelmohsen Albogami, Abdullah Allhuaidan, Saleh Alfawaz, Shatha Murad, Mostafa Kofi*

*Corresponding Author: Mostafa Kofi, Family and Community Medicine Department, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Received Date: 12 November, 2021

Accepted Date: 19 November, 2021

Published Date: 26 November, 2021

Abstract

Background: Pregnancy is a diabetogenic condition, with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) developing in 3 to 25% of all pregnancies. GDM has unfavorable short- and long-term consequences for both mothers and their children. We conducted this study aiming to assess the prevalence of gestational diabetes and associated risk factors during pregnancy in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional survey study. GDM diagnosis was based on the universal two-hour 75 g OGTT. GDM cases were defined using the 75 g OGTT with at least one value of plasma glucose concentration equals to or exceeds the thresholds of 92 mg/dl, 180 mg/dl, and 153 mg/dl for fasting one-hour, and 2-hour post glucose, respectively. The data was collected by the study authors from patients' files using a data collection form that included the oral glucose tolerance test results in addition to the participants' socio-demographic data.

Results: A total of 384 pregnant women were recruited, the highest percentage (29.7%) of them aged 26 to 30 years old, 35% were overweight and 24.5% were obese, and 72.4% were multi-parity. Based on the 2h OGTT, the prevalence of GDM was 32.6%. The univariate logistic regression analysis showed that old age, low educational level, higher BMI, family history of DM, higher rates of multi-parity, abortions, C-sections, and hypothyroidism were significant risk factors for GDM. On the other hand, there were no significant associations between occupational status, PCOS, preeclampsia, hypertension, asthma, and GDM.

Conclusion: GDM diagnosed on basis of the OGTT criteria was very common among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Overweight and obesity as well as older age were associated with an increased risk of GDM. Also, low educational level, family history of DM, GDM history, history of abortion, and C-section were all significant risk factors of GDM.

Keywords: Gestational diabetes; Pregnancy; Saudi Arabia


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