Journal of Orthopedic Research and Therapy (ISSN: 2575-8241)

Article / research article

"Swing Mechanics of the Offside Forehand in Professional Female Polo Athletes"

 Gretchen D. Oliver*, Gabrielle G. Gilmer, Jeff W. Barfield, Abby R. Brittian

School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA

*Corresponding author: Gretchen Oliver, School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, 301 Wire Rd, Auburn AL 36849, USA. Tel: +18592004035; Email:

Received Date: 12 February, 2018; Accepted Date: 17 February, 2018; Published Date: 23 February, 2018


1.      Abstract

Equestrian polo has experienced a 44% increase in participation over the last several years; however, there are a lack of data available describing this motion. In order to develop and implement training programs for youth athletes, there is a need to establish normative data for common polo swings, such as the offside forehand shot. The purpose of this study was to (1)describe trunk (flexion, lateral flexion, rotation) and upper extremity (shoulder horizontal abduction, elevation; elbow flexion) kinematics, and segmental speeds (humerus, forearm, hand) while performing the offside forehand polo swing in professional female polo athletes; and (2)examine the relationship of the kinematics variables and participant demographics with hand speed at the event of ball contact. Ten female professional polo players (33.0 ± 10.4 yrs.; 107.4 ± 22.1 cm; 66.9 ± 9.3 kg; 11.5 ± 8.1 yrs. of experience) participated. Kinematic data were collected at 100 Hz using an electromagnetic tracking system synced with The MotionMonitorTM. Each participant performed three trials of the offside forehand swing. All swings were analyzed across three swing events (take away (TA), top of backswing (TOB), ball contact (BC)). Pearson product-moment correlations revealed significant relationships between hand speed and height (R = 0.690, p = 0.027); elbow flexion at TA (R = -0.718, p = 0.019), at TOB (R = -0.635, p = 0.049), and at BC (R = -0.875, p = 0.001). The kinematics observed suggests optimal energy transfer along the kinetic chain. The relationships imply that the more extended the elbow is throughout the course of the swing, the faster the hand willmove thus propelling the mallet faster for ball contact.

2.      Keywords: Equestrian Polo; Polo Developmen;Youth Polo Development


Figure 1: Swing Events of the Polo Offside Forehand.

Figure 2:Segmental Speeds.


Figure 3:Correlation between hand speed at BC and elbow flexion at TA.

                                Figure 4:Correlation between hand speed at BC and elbow flexion at TOB.

Figure 5:Correlation between hand speed at BC and elbow flexion at BC.

                                Figure 6: Correlation between hand speed at BCand elbow flexion and height.


Table 1: Kinematic variables means and standard deviations at the three swing events[MOU1] .

Kinematic Variable (°)




Trunk Flexion




Trunk Lateral Flexion




Trunk Rotation




Shoulder Horizontal Abduction




Shoulder Elevation




Elbow Flexion




TA = Take Away; TOB = Top of Backswing; BC = Ball Contact


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Citation: Oliver GD, Gilmer GG, Barfield JW, Brittian AR (2018) Swing Mechanics of the Offside Forehand in Professional Female Polo Athletes. J Orthop Res Ther 2018: 180. DOI: 10.29011/2575-8241.000180

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