1. Dutch Fisheries in Sustainable Transition
2. Problem Statement
For fishery SME’s the ultimate chosen innovations are mainly based on a realistic return of investments by substantially decreasing the operational costs (investment, fuel) and increasing the earnings (quality fresh fish). However, because of the economic crisis (2008) and aging fishing fleet, the sector was/is urgently looking for innovative new-buildings, future proven with year round positive business models and higher residual/second-hand values at the end-of-lifecycle. Also the SME’s must increasingly deal with the societal requirements as well as green North Sea fishery image. Beside skipper-owners are more eager to keep good fishermen on-board, a.o. to substantially reduce the fishermen workload through further automation of the fish processing line. This means that in the (re)designing process the human factor and a greener image have increasingly become more important design criteria (People, Planet, Profit; triple P). Not only for the fishermen but also these design drivers are becoming a scientific challenge to develop innovative (fishing)vessel design methodologies, in which technical as well as societal aspects are integrated. The so-called social/vague (re) design requirements, such as well-being crew, greener image, political trends are often difficult to deal with in (fishing) vessel designs by naval architects, while social scientists are often unfamiliar with the technical (re) design constraints. So far these aspects are either studied by engineers with tailor-made technical solutions (ß-approach) or these poor descriptive requirements are separately investigated by social scientists (α-approach). An effective combined ß-α (re) design methodology does not exist yet. However, in the Beamer 2000 projects a start has been made and nowadays researchers are developing life-cycle/eco-design methodologies for further integration of potentially conflicting ß/α requirements such as LCA assessment and Circular Economy principles. Especially for the complex fishing vessel designs (engineering, fishing techniques, fish processing and catch capacity), the eco-design design experiences are a challenging start-up for more scientific (fishing) vessel design optimization, whereby α-and ß design aspects are fully integrated with customization to the evolving circular economy requirements. Such a new methodology can be validated on the successfully MDV-1 innovation-, design- and building process and expanded with the circular economy principles for (fishing)vessel design and SME’s. The MDV multi-criteria approach have successfully been applied to the first sustainable pilot vessel in the Dutch flatfish fisheries (MDV-1, Ship of the Year* 2016 ; 80 % energy saving; a prestigious KNVTS shipbuilding Award) (Figure 4).
The MDV-1 is already 2 years successfully fishing in the North Sea and follow-up design discussions and further (PhD)research are taken place anticipating the near-future required “ultimate sustainable fishing vessels” .
A spin-off of the beamer 2000 projects was the first scientific safety integrated (re)design methodology for existing beamers with a technical solution matrix. This development has been successfully analysed and scientifically described in the PhD study, “Safety and the design process (Kindunos; John Stoop, 1990)”. For the first time personal safety aspects were integrated in beamer ship designs, from a retrospective accident analysis up to prospective use with operational and technical (partial) solutions. At the time many partial solutions were accepted by the fishermen and it gave also a boost to the safety- and quality awareness in the Dutch fishing sector.
In a sector with predominantly small enterprises, the MDV approach required good knowledge of the North Sea flatfish fisheries and an intensive collaboration with fishermen and fresh fish supply chain actors. This was guaranteed by the MDV multi-disciplinary team under the umbrella of the Foundation Masterplan Sustainable Fisheries (MDV; 2010-present) with many eco-friendly innovations, these have been described in detail in various newspapers and (inter)national maritime journals .
4. Research Aim
The PhD research aim is the development of a more scientific, sustainability integrated design methodology for (fishing) vessels. Based on the beamer (re) design experiences (Beamer 2000, MDV-1;1990-present) and the current/evolving eco-design approaches. In particular, with reference to the Kindunos-process (safety/working conditions in re-designs), the Resilience approach (fishery innovations and human behaviour) and the end-of-life recycling process (retaining and residual values). So far there doesn’t exist yet a fully ß-α integrated design approach. The existing vessel design approaches are either technologically driven or socially driven and circular economy principles are still missing. With the intended methodical design optimization process, technical (ß) as well as social (α, crew acceptance), all requirements are integrated: “Sustainability in the vessel design process (triple P Plus)”. A triple P approach has more or less been applied in the design process and launching of the first innovative Dutch pilot fishing vessel, the MDV-1 IMMANUEL. However, because of the MDV financial constraints and time restrictions, the design drivers were mainly focussed on substantial energy saving, proven sustainability and new business models. A Life-Cycle Approach (LCA) has been considered but it has only been directionally applied in the MDV process (80 % emission reduction over 30 years) as well as the MARIN length/replacement analysis. At that time the MDV team was not yet familiar with the circular economy principles (prolonged life, retaining value, reducing waste). These additional eco-friendly design drivers will be further integrated in the new fishing vessel triple-Plus design process (people, planet, profit & circular economy). The MDV-1 follow-up fishing vessel (S) must become the “Ultimate sustainable fishing vessel for the North Sea and Wadden Sea” and with the first step to a more “Generic vessel design process”, where-in a lot sustainability is integrated. For the fishery sector the methodology must be business driven with excellent fishermen perspective, green image and proven Corporate Social Responsibility .
· Beamer 2000; Safety integrated (re) designing, the Kindunos method, Frans Veenstra (RIVO), John stoop (TU Delft); CIP-DATA Royal Library, The Hague, Veenstra F.A. ISBN 90-74549-02-0 (subject heading: Beamer 2000); 1990
· PhD thesis Stoop J.A., Safety and the Design Process, thesis Technische Universities Delft (TU Delft), April, 19 1990
· Dutch Newbuilding after the 2000 re-design requirements, Fishing News International, Good Gear Guide 2002-new vessels, Frans Veenstra, 2002
6. MDV-1 Innovation, Design-And Building Process 2008-2017 (Multi-Criteria Design Optimization (Economics, Ecology, Social)
· MDV thinking; innovative thinking and doing- Frans Veenstra. March 30, 2015.
Design evaluation 2017 (in Dutch) Ontwerp, bouw en operationeel proces MDV-1 “Van IDEE 2010 naar het Schip van het Jaar 2016, de MDV-1 IMMANUEL, MDV innovatie-,ontwerp- en bouwproces” Frans Veenstra /MDV innovatiemanager. July 2017.
Figure 1: Traditional Dutch Flatfish Fishing Vessel (beamer; 1980’s-present).
Figure 2: Innovative Flatfish Twinrigpulser (MDV-1; 2015-present).
Figure 3: Launching MDV-1, Rotterdam, Jan. 2015.
Figure 4: Delivery MDV-1, Urk, June 2016.
Figure 5: Frans Veenstra.
Figure 6: Twin rigging MDV-1 in practice 2016.
Figure 7: Twin rig pulse rigging, electrical stimulating flatfish.
Figure 8: AC-DC diesel-electric installations MDV-1.
2. Hale A, Heijer T (2006) Defining resilience. Resilience engineering: concept and precepts. Ashgate publishing
5. Merchant S, Navy DD. Technical fishery researcher RIVO/IMARES.
6. Rigging T (2016) fishery innovation manager, supporting Dutch North Sea fisheries in sustainable transition.
7. Delft TU (2017) “Sustainability and vessel design process” (status: final discussions).